Spice Descriptions and Uses

Cayenne and other chillies

Cayenne and other chillies go well with several other spices including cilantro, cinnamon, black pepper, fennel and cumin. Use alone or in combination with these other spices to perk up a dish or to create a hot food. Cayenne can be used to season egg dishes and savoury biscuits and is a favourite addition to many staples such as rice, corn, beans and soup. Cayenne can also be found in many hot sauces and spiced oils and vinegars. It is an ingredient in some curry powders.

Capsicum frutescens or Capsicum annuum



1 tsp


1.80 g


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Total lipid (fat)



Carbohydrate, by difference



Fiber, total dietary







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Calcium, Ca



Iron, Fe



Magnesium, Mg



Phosphorus, P



Potassium, K



Sodium, Na



Zinc, Zn



Copper, Cu



Manganese, Mn



Selenium, Se




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Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid












Vitamin B-6



Folate, total



Vitamin B-12



Vitamin A, IU



Vitamin A, RE



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Fatty acids, total saturated



























Fatty acids, total monounsaturated



16:1 undifferentiated



18:1 undifferentiated






22:1 undifferentiated



Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated



18:2 undifferentiated



18:3 undifferentiated






20:4 undifferentiated



20:5 n-3



22:5 n-3



22:6 n-3









Chillies (capsicum annum or capsicum frutescens)


Capsicum annuum Linn. and C. frutescens Linn.

Family : Solanaceae

Chillies or chilli pepper is one of the most popular spices used around the world. Chillies grow best in hot climates and they bring their heat to your palate in many shapes, colours and degrees of hotness. There are about 150 different types of chillies, with colours including purple, red, yellow, orange and green.

How to Use:

While there are some mild varieties, most chillies are hot so use sparingly at first. When you are familiar with the "bite" of a particular chilli and know your own "heat" threshold, you may wish to use a little more in cooking. Use chillies in making chilli vinegar, hot oil, tomato sauces, rice dishes, soups, hot condiments such as sambal, chili con carne, beans, corn and curry powders. Chillies go well with several other spices including basil, ginger, oregano, cilantro, cinnamon, black pepper, fennel and cumin.


Carefully and in modest amounts. Always test a new chillie powder or blend that you are using before adding to a recipe. The longer a chillie is cooked, the hotter the flavour. Simmering chillies or chillie powder in a dish distributes the heat throughout the food. Stir frying tends to add flavour and a bit of spice. You can reduce the heat in a fresh or dried chillie by soaking it in a solution of 3 parts vinegar to 1 part salt for an hour. Using one of our powdered or ground chilli preparations is the easiest way to ensure a consistent level of spice in your cooking.


Chilli or pepper (Capsicum) is any of a great number of plants of the night shade family, Solanaceae, extensively cultivated throughout tropical Asia and equatorial America for their edible, pungent fruits. India is the largest producer and exporter of chillies. The genus Capsicum comprised all the varied forms of fleshy-fruited peppers grown as herbaceous annuals - the red, green, and yellow pepper rich in vitamins A and C that are used in seasoning and as a vegetable food. It includes paprika, chili pepper, red pepper (cayenne), and bell peppers. The latter one is considered and eaten as a vegetable and is not covered in this section. The capsicums under each category vary tremendously and the species designation is not always possible. In general, paprika belongs to C.annum and the red peppers and chili peppers belong to the C.frutescens species. The name chilli is believed to be derived from an ancient Indian word txile. The term "pimiento," from the Spanish for "pepper", is applied to certain mild pepper varieties possessing distinctive flavour but lacking in pungency; these include the European paprikas, which include the paprika of commerce, a powdered red condiment that was known in Hungary by the late 16th century.

Peppers, which have been found in prehistoric remains in Peru, were widely grown in Central and South America in pre-Columbian times and are considered indigenous to the the Western Hemisphere. Christopher Columbus found capsicum peppers in the New World and wrote about them. The Indians as far back as 7000 BC, the remains of which were found in archeological sites in Mexico, ate capsicums. Pepper seeds were carried to Spain in 1493 and from there spread rapidly throughout Europe.


The chilli plant is bush-like, grows up to about 0.6m and bears white flowers that produce fruits in a variety of sizes, colours and shapes. The plants grow at altitudes from sea level to 1,800 m above MSL in the tropics. Their pungency is influenced by several factors, such as high night temperatures and drought or over-watering.


Pepper plants are treated as tender summer annuals outside their native habitat. They are propagated by planting seed directly in the field or by transplanting seedlings started in green houses or hotbeds after 6-10 weeks. Green chillies are immature fruits and red chillies have been allowed to ripen for a further 4 weeks.

Aroma and flavour

The pungency for the red peppers and the colour value for the paprikas are the most important parameters. Hot peppers, used as relishes, pickled or ground into a fine powder for use as spices, derive their pungency from the compound capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-enamide), a substance characterized by acrid and burning taste, that is located in the internal partitions of the fruit. First isolated in 1876, capsaicin stimulates gastric secretions and, if used in excess, causes inflammation. It is a tasteless, odourless white crystalline substance. Its level varies widely in capsicum peppers, from less than 0.05% in the mildly pungent types to as high as 1.3% in the hottest chillies. The pungency level is usually represented in Scoville heat values. Pungency levels vary in the same variety, by geographical region, and in maturity levels. Volatile oil content is low in all capscicums. The pigment responsible for the colour in paprikas is capxanthin, a carotenoid. Other carotenoids present are capsorubin, zeaxanthin, lutein, kryptoxanthin and alpha and beta-carotene. The pigment content increases as the fruit ripens and continues after maturity.The extractable colour of parika is usually expressed in ASTA colour value or in Colour Units, which are 40 times the ASTA colour.

Culinary use

Chillies have a chemical effect on our bodies as they stimulate the appetite and cool the body. The chilli flavour revolutionized the cooking of tropical countries. Red pepper is used in a large variety of products, often in the meat and pickling industry in the form of crushed red pepper or ground red pepper. It is used either in the ground form or as oleoresin in any product that has some heat or pungency. A fine powder made from specially mild varieties of pepper, C.annum, is known as paprika. Paprika is used more extensively whenever a red to orange colour is desired such as in processed meats, snack, foods, sauces, gravies, salad dressings etc.

Therapeutic Action

Stimulant, tonic, carminative, sialagogue, stomachic, rubefacient, pungent, alterative, astringent, antispasmodic, sudorific, emetic, antiseptic, condiment, antirheumatic.

Medicinal Uses

Apoplexy, arrest gangrene or mortification, arthritis, asthma, asthmatic asphyxia, atonic gout, bleeding, bleeding of the lungs, chills, colds, cold extremities, congestion, constipation, cough, cramps, debility, delirium trements, dyspepsia, functional sluggishness, fatigue, heart trouble and heart attacks, hemorrhage, hemorrhoids, high and low blood pressure, indigestion, inflammation, kidney and related problems, lethargy, low fevers, lumbago, menorrhagia, neuralgia, offensive breath, pains in the stomach and bowels, palpitation, pleurisy, profound shock, quinsy, rheumatism, scarlet fever, strokes, tonsillitis, typhoid fever, ulcers, wounds, yellow fever.


Capsicum or Cayenne (Capsicum Frutescens) is hight in vitamins A, C, iron and calcium. It contains vitamin G, magnesium, phosphorus, and sulphur, It aslo has some B-complex, and is rich in potassium.

Other Info

Capsicum is the purest and most certain stimulant, used medicinally and also as a condiment. This pepper is a great food for the circulatory system. It feeds elements that may be lacking into the cell structure of the arteries, veins and capillaries to give them the elasticity of youth again, as the blood pressure adjusts itself to normal. When the venous structure becomes loaded with sticky mucus, the blood has a harder time circulating; therefore, higher pressure forces the liquid through. Capsicum regulates the flow of blood from the head to the feet so that it is equalized.Capsicum (as a stimulant) is an activator, carrier, and accentuator.

Capsicum influences the heart immediately, then gradually extends its effects to the arteries, capillaries, and nerves.The frequency of the pulse is not increased, but it is given more power. In equalizing the blood circulation, capsicum produces natural warmth, and in stimulating the peristaltic motion of the intestines, it aids in assimilation and elimination. It rebuilds the tissue in the stomach. It also heals stomach and intestinal ulcers.

Chilli pepper is used primarily in the manufacture of chilli powders. Cayenne pepper is a very fine ground powder from the C.frutescens variety. It is widely used as a seasoning and it is also added to some curries. Chilli powder of chili pepper is the dried ground product of the milder peppers. It is a blended product of different chilies to get the exact flavour profile and colour desired. Chilli peppers are often caramelized to get a burnt flavour note and a surface browned colour. Common heat values for chilli peppers are mild, about 100 Scoville heat units. Tabasco sauce or chilli sauce is a North American seasoning made from extremely hot Tabasco or cone chillies, which are mixed with vinegar and then matured in white oak casks for several years. It is widely used in small quantities as a general seasoning. Chilli is also used as a paste and in crushed form in several dishes.

Chillies are rich in vitamin C and are stimulants to the appetite. They also act to cool the body by producing sweat. Their cooling and calming effect keeps them in favour in hot climates. Their heat comes from capsaicin, which is an oily substance and not water soluble. The heat of a chillie is measured in Scoville units. Sweet banana peppers have a rating of 0. The Habanero pepper measures in at 100,000 to 300,000 Scoville units.

Capsaicin, the active ingredient in hot chilies (and the cause of that burning, fiery sensation on the tongue), is so biologically active that it is now being sold by prescription, in ointment form, for pain relief. In lower doses, it is also available over the counter. In at least one study, researchers also found that capsaicin may fend off migraine headaches.

Capsaicin, the substance responsible for the pungency of hot peppers, is a highly irritating substance, so concentrated that the tongue can detect it in a solution of one part capsaicin to a million parts of water. We are all familiar with the "chili effect," the sweating and salivation that comes after eating foods high in capsaicin. These reactions may be reflexes resulting from the direct effects of this irritating substance on the pain fibers in the mucous membranes of the mouth.

People once thought that all highly spiced foods created gastric problems (one of the reasons why physicians used to treat all stomach ulcers with bland diets). Although we now know that a bacteria is responsible for most ulcers.

Ancho-(Ahn-cho) Chile (Capsicum Annuum) means Wide Chile Pepper. The dried Ancho has a dark, brick red to mahogany color with a medium thick wrinkled flesh with wide shoulders, tapering to a round end. The Ancho is about 4 -5 inches long by 3 inches wide and is very flat. This Chile ranges from 3 - 5 on a heat scale of 1 to 10. An Ancho is the dried form of a Poblano Pepper and often is mislabeled as a Pasilla or Mulato pepper. An Ancho can be used as a substitute for Guajillo or Pasilla Negro Chiles and visa versa. These chiles have the same heat range and flavor profile. Anchos, combined with the Pasilla and Guajillo, form the Holy Trinity of chiles used to prepare the traditional mole sauces. Anchos are also available in granulated and powdered form (100 pure). Scoville heat units are 1,000 to 3,000.

Suggested Use:

Anchos are great in salsa, soups, enchilada and any sauce needing mild heat and chile flavor. Chopped, pureed or ground, they can be added directly to your recipes.

Ancho (Tiburon)

Extra large, glossy dark green pepper is uniform and way more productive than standard varieties, with a sweeter taste and thicker flesh. Big sturdy plant holds heavy fruit well off the ground.

Andy: Slender smooth cayenne pepper turns bright red and dries beautifully.

Strong erect plant holds fruit up well so they grow long and straight.


Anaheim Chilli Pepper Vegetable. Popular for roasting, frying and stuffing. Stuff with Monterey Jack spicy hot pepper cheese for a sensational tasty treat that doesn't bum the mouth. Fruits up to 8in long.

Anaheim chile (Numex Joe E. Parker)

Extremely productive traditional Anaheim type. Uniform 6-8" by 2" 2-lobed fruits ripen from bright green to mahogany to red, but are mostly consumed green. Southwest favorite for stuffed chile rellenos and enchiladas, grilled, and roasted for stews and sauces. The flesh is thick and crispy with a delicious mild heat and richly satisfying chile flavor.

Boldog Hungarian Spice smooth fruits make beautiful big ristras and can be used fresh to add color and spice in cooking and salads. Intense deep crimson color, plenty of sugar, and just a touch of heat. Grind your own world-class, aromatic, sweetly spicy paprika.


Cherry Bomb is a large fruited pepper with super thick walls to absort more pickling brine. THE variety to grow for homemade 'peppers' - pickled peppers filled with cheese, breaded and deep fried - all the rage now in restaurants and served as hors d'oeuvres.

Harvest when the fruits are fully ripe - at the green stage they are slightly less hot than at the fully ripe, red stage. Stress increases the 'heat' production in peppers - flood the ground a couple of days prior to harvest for hotter peppers, or allow to wilt slightly. Days to Maturity: 65-70 days.

Chipotle Chiles (Capsicum Annuum) are made from the familiar Jalapeno Chile. Chipotle Chiles are first smoked, then dried. there are many different beliefs regarding the difference between Brown and Morita Chipotles. Our understanding is that the Brown Chipotles are the Green Jalapenos and the Moritas are the red, fully mature Chipotles. This gives them a unique, medium - hot smokey flavor which is popular in many Southwestern dishes. These peppers are about 2-4 inches in length, 1 inch in width, and have a deep brick reddish brown color. The word Chipotle translated to smoked chile. Consider the Chipotle a 6.5 on a scale of 1-10 (10 being the hottest). Scoville heat units 7,000-25,000.

Suggested Use:

Use Chipotles in enchilada sauces, chili, stews, barbecue ribs, and corn bread. Their smoky quality combines well with poultry, meats and fall squash.

De Arbol (Capsicum Annuum) means tree like in Spanish. The plant has thick, upright, woody stems and the chile itself is narrow, curved and bright red in color. Believed to be closely related to the pequin, the De Arbol is thin fleshed, with tannic, smoky, grassy flavor and searing heat. This chile has a heat range of 7.5 on the heat scale of 1-10. De Arbol Chiles are comparable to a Cayenne Pepper.Scoville heat units 15,000 to 30,000.

Suggested Use:

De Arbol is a hot chile and a staple in Southwest kitchens. Add some heat to your next salsa or Mexican dish. Be adventurous and add them to your next stew or chili along with the other spices Add some heat to your next salsa or Mexican dish.

Firecracker is compact, well formed plants producing lots of miniature ½in upright peppers in a range of inferno colours: cream, purple, orange and red. Very attractive ornamental plants tor the patio or conservatory and you can of course eat the fruits. Aptly named because these peppers are VERY hot - don't forget the iced water!

The Guajillo (wha - hee - oh) Chile Pepper (Capsicum Annuum) is the most common chile in Mexico after the Ancho. The flavor of the Guajillo is distinct, slightly fruity with a strong piney, berry under taste. Guajillo flavors dishes easily, a little goes a long way. This chile measures 3 to 5 inches in length and is about 1 inch wide. The color is a brick red with deep burgundy tones and the skin is smooth. This chile is between a 2-4 on the heat scale of 1-10. Guajillo, combined with the Pasilla and Ancho, form the Holy Trinity of chiles used to prepare the traditional mole sauces.Scoville heat units 2,500 to 5,000.

Suggested Use:

Guajillo is a mildly hot chile, use in sauces, salsa and soups. Add directly to recipes with other spices. The Guajillo Chile imparts a distinctive flavor to refried beans. A little goes a long way


Habanero Chiles (Capsicum Annuum) are the hottest chile. Behind the heat is a fruity flavor that makes these chiles a wonderful way to spark up a dish. The Habanero has orange, reddish tones to its skin. It is round, oblong chile about 3/4 wide. Habanero means havana-like, a reference to its possible origins. It's the only pepper grown in the Yucatan that has no Mayan name. Speculation suggests the Habanero originated in South America and made it's way into the Caribbean and Central America via Columbia. On the heat scale the Habanero is a 10, use rubber gloves when handling the Habanero Pepper.Scoville heat units 150,000 to 325,000.

Suggested Use:

Habanero are very, very hot Use them sparingly, add a little to fresh salsa, sauces, chili and anything else you want to start a 4 alarm fire with Great in Tortilla Soup and other Mexican recipes. Tabasco sauce and eating fresh and a favourite in Caribbean recipes, eg, mixed with equal quantities of raw onion, tomato, chopped fine and served with a dash of lime or orange juice.

Habanero (Carribean Red) Capsicum chinense

(Ultra-hot chile!) Glossy, iridescent. A red ripe version of Habanero with even more fiery heat.

Habanero (Hot Paper Lantern) Capsicum chinense

Pointed, wrinkled, and elongated lantern-shaped fruits are 3-4" long. Big plants continue to put on quite a display of color through late summer as the fruits change in color from bright lime green through shades of orange to scarlet red.

Heatwave Thanks to Columbus who is credited with discovering the cayenne pepper, gardeners and cooks can enjoy the pleasure of this mixture containing red, yellow and orange. Beautifully ornamental and offering a 'mind blowing' hot flavour experience.

Hero A strong vigorous variety which will cope well with difficult conditions. Virus resistant and can tolerate lower temperatures than most varieties. Sets a consistently heavy crop of 6in long smooth, slim 16 gram peppers with a thick flesh.

Hungarian Hot Wax

5-1/2" by 1-1/2", smooth, waxy fruits tapering to a point. Easy to stuff and to peel after roasting, and popular for frying. Its sunrise colors make the prettiest pickled peppers. Early and wdiely adapted. Definitely - but not overly - hot.


The Jalapeno Pepper is named after the town of Jalapa in the state of Veracruz in Mexico. This whole Jalapeno is about 2 to 3 inches long and 1 - 1 1/2 inches wide and bright to dull green in color, if left on the vine to mature the Jalapeno will turn red. This is a thick fleshed pepper with a hot green (10 being the hottest) a Jalapeno would be about a 6.5.Scoville heat units 7,000 to 15,000.

Suggested Use:

Use diced Jalapeno in enchilada sauces, chili, stews, and salsas.

Conchos, Jalapeno: Darker green color, more cylindrical, and better flavor than Giant Jalapeno, with moderate heat. Big (1¾" x 3-4"), very smooth.

The Japones Chile (Capsicum Annuum) is a small, pointed chile, 2 inches long and 1/2 inch wide. This chile is similar in appearance to the De Arbol. Though the walls of the Japones are thicker. Dried Japones Chiles are medium hot and good with Asian dishes. On the heat scale, this chile is 5-6.Scoville heat units 15,000 to 35,000.

Suggested Use:

Japones Chiles are medium hot and frequently found in spicier Asian and Oriental dishes. Used in Thai Basil Curry dishes and Hot Peanut Sauces. Crush a few pods and add them to your next stir fry.

Joe's Long Cayenne: Turns bright red for homemade hot sauce and dries well for ristras and delicious dried hot pepper flakes. The 8-10" long thin-fleshed fruits taper to a skinny point, giving them a somewhat "gnarly" appearance. Appropriately "nasty" in both looks and heat for the most outlandish ristras! Joe Sesito of Troy


Magic Red: Totally uniform, medium-large size, tapered, pointed chiles avg. 5-6" x 3/4". The red ripe chiles are thin fleshed and dry easily for storing whole, stringing into ristras, or grinding into chile powder. Medium-hot. Large plants yield well and are widely adapted.


The Mulato is a large, flat and wrinkled chile. It measures 4 by 3 inches, with a tapered bottom. This Chile is the color of deep chocolate. Mulato Chiles have a medium thick skin and a deep flavor which is not too hot nor too lingering. The Mulato is similar to an Ancho, but the Mulato has more of a smokey flavor. Commonly used in Mexican Mole Sauces. On the heat scale the Mulato is between 2-4.Scoville heat units 500 - 2,500.

Suggested Use:

Mulato Chiles have a mild to medium heat. Great in Mexican sauces, salsa and soups. Try them in jAmerican dishes for a little heat. Chiles can be added directly recipes with other spices.

New Mexico Chiles (Capsicum Annuum) are dark brownish - maroon in color, about 5 to 7 high and 1-1/2 wide. New Mexico Chiles are elongated, tapered, and the dried form of the Red Anaheim Pepper. This chile has a thin flesh with an earthy chile flavor and undertones of wild cherries. This chile ranges from 2-4 on a heat scale of 1 to 10. The New Mexico Chile may be referred to as the California Chile or Chile Colorado. New Mexico Chiles are commonly used in Red Mexican or Southwestern sauces and is grown in Mexico. This mildly hot chile also comes in a 100 pure powdered form and is used to make Ristras.Scoville heat units 8,000 - 12,000.

Suggested Use:

New Mexico Chiles are mildly hot and very popular in Southwest cooking. Great in sauces, salsa, rice dishes, stews and soups. Add directly to the cooking liquid along with other spices. Use in stir fry, or add to chicken or fish marinades.

The Pasilla (Pa-see-ya) Negro (Capsicum Annuum) is an elongated, flat chile, measuring 6 inches long and 1 1/2 inches wide. The Pasilla's wrinkled body curves into an arc. The color of this pepper is dark purple-black; similar to the color of an Eggplant or a Raisin. This thin fleshed chile has a berry flavor with herbaceous tones. The word Pasilla comes from the word PASA which means little black raisin. Pasilla Negros, combined with the Ancho and Guajillo, form the holy trinity of chiles used to prepare the traditional mole sauces. This is a medium hot chile, on the heat scale this chile is a 3-5.Scoville heat units 1,000-2,000.

Suggested Use:

Pasilla Negro is a medium hot chile. Use it in traditonal Mexican recipes. Be adventurous and add it to meat loaf, beef stew or corn chowder. Great in sauces, salsa and soups. This chile is a flavorful ingredient for cream sauce dishes.

Pequins are small, oval shaped chiles (Capsicum Annuum) with tapered ends. The color of a dried Pequin is an orange-red. They often grow wild in the mountains of Mexico. This chile measures 1/2 inch in length and is only 1/4 of an inch wide. The flavor is hot, with sweet and citrus undertones. On the heat scale, this little chile ranks an 8.5.Scoville heat units 40,000 - 50,000.

Suggested Use:

Pequin Chiles are very hot A little goes a long way. Use Pequins to heat up Pasta Diablo, with shrimp or lobster added. If you love hot chili, salsa and stews, this is the chile for you.

Puya is similar to the guajillo chile, only smaller and more potent. It has a fruity flavor.Scoville heat units are 5,000 to 8,000.

Suggested Use:

Rinse product first with warm water. soak in hot water for 10 minutes to rehydrate or add directly to recipe that will cook at least 10 minutes. To release more flavor, roast in a 250 degree oven for 3-4 minutes. Once rehydrated, dice or puree and add to a recipe.

Prairie Fire these peppers might look small, but they certainly make up for size when it comes to flavour! One bushy plant will give you a non-stop summer crop of literally hundreds of mini, extremely hot peppers. (Capsicum annuum)

The Serrano Chile is about 1 1/2 long and slightly pointed. This chile has a very hot, savory flavor. Once the chile is matured, it is scarlet red in color. The Dried Serrano is primarily used in sauces. Reconstitute the chile by placing in hot tap water (so the chile softens), then dice and slice to ones liking. Scoville heat units are 8,000 to 22,000.

Suggested Use:

Add the serrano to any sauce in which an authentic, hot chile flavoring is desired. Reconstitute and dice chile into 1/4 pieces and add to dish. Let chile cook in sauce/dish for at least 5-10 minutes.

Tepin Chiles (Capsicum Annuum) are also known as Bird Peppers or Chiltepins. Shaped more like a berry than a chile, the Tepin relies on birds to propagate it's seeds. Rarely found cultivated, it grows wild in Southern Texas and throughout Mexico. This chile has a long history, the word Tepin is from the Nahuatl language of the Aztec Indians. This little pepper is very spicy with a searing heat. On the heat scale the Tepin is an 8.Scoville heat units 40,000 - 50,000.

Suggested Use:

Tepin Chiles are very hot Don't let their small size deceive you, a little goes a long way. Use in Mexican recipes and in Posole dishes. If you love hot chili, salsa and stews, this is the chile for you.

Thai Dragon: Not for the faint hearted, this is the variety that gives Habenero a run tor its money. The 3.5in fruits are prolific bearers, often yielding up to 200 fruits! Great addition in pickling jars to put some zip in your step. Harvest singly, or pull the entire plant when full of red peppers, and hang upside down in the kitchen for use all year long.


Other wild species

Capsicum anomalum

Omitted from Capsicum species list in 1983 by Eshbaugh. A wild variety of pepper from Japan. This isn't a true Capsicum, rather it is a member of the Turbocapsicum genus. According to the USDA-ARS GRIN database; Plants 1.0m tall, growing in shade. Branches numerous. Leaves long, elliptical and glabrous. Flowers in umbels, with 2-5 per umbel. Corolla short, bell-shaped and yellow. Fruit round, 1.0cm and red at maturity.

Turbocapsicum anomalum

is a perennial, glabrescent, to 1.5 m tall. Stems terete at base, drying ridged, branching dichotomously. Petiole 1-3 cm; leaf blade ovate, elliptic, or ovate-lanceolate, 5-18 Π3-10 cm, papery, base obtuse, margin subentire, apex acuminate or obtuse; veins arcuate. Inflorescences solitary or up to 12-flowered clusters. Pedicel 1-2 cm, nodding, slightly thicker distally. Calyx cup-shaped, 2-2.5 Π3 mm, truncate. Corolla bright yellow, short campanulate, 5-8 Π6-8 mm; lobes ovate-deltate, recurved, 2-3.5 mm, minutely ciliolate. Filaments ca. 0.5 mm; anthers ca. 1.8 mm. Style 2.5-3 mm. Fruiting calyx not enlarged. Berry shiny, scarlet, 0.8-1.2 cm. Seeds pale yellow, discoid, 1-1.5 mm across. Fl. Aug-Oct, fr. Sep-Nov. Mesophytic sites in forests or open places; various elevations. Found in Chinese provinces of Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang, as well as in Indonesia, Japan including Ryukyu Islands, Korea, Philippines, Thailand. Known as Long Zhu/Chi Zhu (in Chinese) and False pepper/Chinese false pepper/Japanese false pepper (in English).

Capsicum breviflorum

Omitted from Capsicum species list in 1983 by Eshbaugh.

Capsicum buforum

Found in Brazil. (A.T.Hunziker)

Capsicum campylopodium

Found in southern Brazil. (Sendt)

Capsicum cardenasii

This is a different looking pepper plant with very small leaves, wispy branches and long tubular purple flowers. The pod is 1cm diameter sphere and ripens from dark green to red. Believed to be found only around La Paz, Bolivia. Genetically part of taxa including Capsicum pubescens. Common name: Ulupica. Known to be susceptible to Pepper mild mottle tobamovirus. Very hot.

Capsicum chacoense

Believed to be found only in Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay. A white flowered species. Known to be susceptible to Pepper mild mottle tobamovirus. Locally known as 'Tova' in Paraguay. According to the USDA-ARS GRIN database; plant is erect, approximately 80 cm tall. Flowers small, white, without spots, anthers yellow with wings at the base of the filaments. Fruits erect, elongated, triangular, 2.5 cm long, 0.5 cm wide, green turning to red at maturity, piquant. Very scarce.

Capsicum chinense Jacquin

Believed to be found only in Latin and South America.

Capsicum ciliatum

Omitted from Capsicum species list in 1983 by Eshbaugh. Synonym for Witheringia ciliata.

Capsicum chlorocladium

From De Candolle.

Capsicum coccineum

Believed to be found only in Bolivia and Peru. A white flowered species.

Capsicum cordiforme

A synonym for Capsicum annuum. Common names includes Pimiento, Bell pepper, Cayenne pepper, Common garden pepper, Green pepper, Mango pepper and Paprika pepper. Susceptible to Pepper hausteco bigeminivirus, Pepper Indian mottle polyvirus, Pepper mild mottle tobamovirus, Pepper Moroccan tombusvirus, Pepper mottle polyvirus, Pepper ringspot tobravirus, Pepper severe mosaic polyvirus, Pepper Texas bigeminivirus and Pepper veinal mottle polyvirus.

Capsicum cornutum

Believed to be found only in southern Brazil.

Capsicum dimorphum

Believed to be found only in Colombia.

Capsicum dusenii

Believed to be found only in south-east Brazil.

Capsicum exile

Not commercially grown, several chile-heads have successfully grown the cultivar 'Cobincho'. This plant is very unlike most other capsicums. It branches out very heavily and the branches themselves are unusually thin. Grows over 130 cm tall and requires support. The leaves are small, smooth, and in the beginning are heart-shaped. The flowers are very small (about 7 mm), and are bright white with stamens which are yellow. The fruit are oval, ca. 8mm long, and mature from green to dark violet to red. Heat-level is about 7.

Capsicum eximium

Believed to be found only in Bolivia and northern Argentina. Said to be a wild relative of the Rocoto. Genetically part of taxa including Capsicum pubescens. A purple flowered species with white to purple corolla and light coloured seeds. Known to be susceptible to Pepper mild mottle tobamovirus. Said to grow like a small tree.

Capsicum eximium var. tomentosum

is a very distinctive sub-species that may be classified later with a separate species status.

Capsicum fasciculatum

Believed to be Capsicum frutescens var. fasciculatum.

Capsicum fastigiatum

Synonym for Capsicum frutescens. Recognised by United States Pharmacopoeia and the British Pharmacopoeia.

Capsicum flexuosum

Treated as variety of Capsicum schottianum by A.T. Hunziker.

Capsicum galapagoensis

Believed to be found only as a wild chile native to Isabela Island & Santa Cruz Island (2 of the Galapagos Islands), Ecuador. A white flowered species that grows to 0.25 inches long. dark green maturing to red. Very hot.

Capsicum geminifolium

Believed to be found only in Colombia and Ecuador.

Capsicum hookerianum

Believed to be found only in Ecuador.

Capsicum lanceolatum

Believed to be found only in Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico.

Capsicum leptopodum

Believed to be found only in Brazil.

Capsicum luteum

Seeds known to be kept at Botanical Garden of Nijmegen.

Capsicum microcarpum

Synonyms for Capsicum baccatum var. baccatum and Capsicum frutescens var. baccatum. Common names: Cayenne pepper, Aji and Peruvian pepper. Known to be susceptible to Pepper mild mottle tobamovirus.

Capsicum minimum

Synonym for Capsicum frutescens. Common names include Bird pepper, Cayenne pepper, Chili pepper, Tabasco pepper and Aji. Susceptible to Pepper Indian mottle polyvirus, Pepper mild mottle tobamovirus, Pepper mottle polyvirus, Pepper severe mosaic polyvirus, Pepper veinal mottle polyvirus and Serrano golden mosaic bigeminivirus.

Capsicum minutiflorum

Believed to be found only in Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay. Synonym of Bassovia minutiflorum.

Capsicum mirabile

Believed to be found only in southern Brazil.

Capsicum parvifolium

Believed to be found only in north-east Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela.

Capsicum pendulum

Synonym for Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum.

Capsicum praetermissum

This variety grows to six feet tall in a single growing season and has thousands of cranberry sized fruit that ripen to red. The flowers are totally flat when fully opened, are purple edged with a white inner band and have a greenish yellow center. The ripe fruits are said to be very seedy. Sold commercially in parts of Brazil. Also known as Capsicum baccatum var. praetermissum . Designated as a separate species since at least before 1983, according to the UN/FAO (Genetic Resources of Capsicum, International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, 1983 [Crop Genetic Resources Centre, Plant Production and Protection Division, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations]) Known to be susceptible to Pepper mild mottle tobamovirus.

Capsicum schottianum

Believed to be found only in Argentina, south Brazil and south-east Paraguay. According to the USDA-ARS GRIN database; Plants are erect, 80-100 cm tall with branches in zig zag pattern. Flowers are white with yellow-green spots at the base of the petals. Fruits are pendulous and reddish-orange at maturity. Leaves are slightly pilose.

Capsicum scolnikianum

Believed to be found only in Peru.

Capsicum sinensis

Known to be insusceptible to Potato U nepovirus

Capsicum stramonifolium

Recognised by the USDA. Found in Panama. Synonym of Witheringia stramonifolia [Kunth].

Capsicum tetragonum

Common name for Hungarian Cayenne and Paprika chiles.

Capsicum tovarii

Believed to be found only in Rio Mantaro basin in south-central Peru, in low montane xerophytic zone, (native to lower dry mountains). Genetically part of taxa including Capsicum pubescens.

Capsicum villosum

Believed to be found only in southern Brazil; Minas Gerais, Parana, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina and Sao Paulo.

Capsicum violaceum

From Kunth. Recognised by the USDA [PI 77331]. Synonym of Capsicum pubescens [Ruiz & Pav].