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Spice Descriptions and Uses

Caraway - carum carvi

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How to Use:

In caraway rye bread (also called kimmel bread), sauerkraut, cabbage, corn bread, biscuits waffles, rice, cottage cheese, cheese dips, potatoes, noodles, cookies, baked apples, seasoned butter, cakes, beef and lamb stew, meat marinades, potato soup, corn chowder, cream of pea soup, turnips, cauliflower, coleslaw, beets, green beans, carrots, zucchini, cabbage rolls, pork, lamb, spareribs, roast goose and guinea hen.

Measuring:

Waffles or biscuits:

Vegetables:

Potatoes:

Pork:

Noodles:

Cheese dip:

Sauerkraut:

Pie crusts:

Potato salad:

Cake:

Cucumbers:

.

1 teaspoon to 1 tablespoon to 2 cups mix

add 1 teaspoon to a 1/4 cup melted butter over cooked vegetables

1/2 teaspoon tossed with 6 to 8 boiled potatoes

1/2 to 3/4 teaspoons crushed to 1 1/2 pounds meat

1/4 to 1 teaspoon to an 8 oz. package of noodles

1 to 2 tablespoons to 1 1/2 cups dip

1/2 to 1 teaspoon per pound

1/2 teaspoon per pie crust pastry for cheese, meat, vegetable pies

2 teaspoons per 4 cups salad

1/2 to 1 teaspoon into batter for a pound or spice cake

1/2 teaspoon in vinegar or dressing over 2 cups sliced cucumber

Carum carvi Linn.

Family : Umbelliferae; Apiaceae

Other names : Carvies; Wild cumin; Roman cumin; Persian cumin

Description

The seed or fruit of caraway(Carum carvi) is obtained from a biennial or occasionally from an annual umbelliferous plant of the parsley family, native to Europe and Western Asia and cultivated in many parts of the world. It is cultivated in a limited scale in Kashmir, Kumaon, Garhwar and Chamba area in India. Caraway is one of the world's oldest culinary spices. Seeds of it were found in the remains of food from the Mesolithic age. It was used to flavour bread eaten by Roman soldiers. The ancient Egyptians always placed a container of caraway in tombs to ward off evil spirits.

Flavour:

Caraway has a pungent aroma that, like its flavour, is warm, with spicy tones, slightly bitter with a mild citrus aftertaste.

 

Botany

Caraway, a perennial or biennial herb, grows to about 0.6 m and has feathery, compound leaves. The roots are tuberose and thick and the flowers are small and white borne on umbels. It blooms every two years to produce large creamy flowers. The seeds are mericarps as each seed is a half of the fruit. Each single seed or carpel is about 0.5 cm long, tan to brown, and curved with five lighter coloured ridges along the length of the seed.

Cultivation

The seeds of the biennial varieties can be sown either late in summer or early in spring, but those of the annual type only in spring. Sowings should be made in rows 60 cm apart at such rate as to produce six to eight plants / 30cm. The seeds should be planted in light well-drained soil. Germination is slow as well as the growth of plants in the early part of the season; therefore, considerable care is necessary to keep down weeds. The biennials flower early in the second season after planting and mature their seeds by midsummer. When the fruiting umbels have turned brown they should be cut from the plant before shattering begins. The umbels should be dried thoroughly in the sun or shade, and the seeds separated and then cleaned and stored in a paper bag or closed container.

Caraway seeds contain about1.5 - 3.5% volatile oil. The main component (50-60%) of the essential oil is carvone. It also contains limonene, dihydrocarvone., dihydrocarveol, carveol, acetaldeyde, methyl alcohol, furfural and diacetyl.

Culinary use

Caraway is used extensively in East European, German and Austrian cooking. The whole form is used in rye and other speciality breads, cakes and biscuits. They may be used in potato salads, cream or cottage cheese, cookies, or bread. The leaves can be snipped into salads or used as a garnish. The carrot-shaped root has the same flavour as the seeds and it can be cooked in the same way as parsnips, either by baking or boiling.

Medicinal and other use

Oil of caraway was recommended by Dioscorides, the famous botanist, to be rubbed into to the skin to improve the complexion. It is used as a flavouring in children's medicines, as an antidote to flatulence and an acid to digestion. Its flavour and aroma are used in mouthwash and gargle preparations as well as in the perfume industry.

Other Info:

Caraway may be one of the most ancient spices used by humans. There is evidence of it being used in the Stone Age. It was known and used in the temperate countries of Asia such as Iran and Turkey and then became popular in central Europe. Its name comes from the ancient Arabic, karawya.

Indian Institute of Spices Research, India

Caraway Seed Carum carvi

Nutrient

Units

1 tsp

-------

2.10 g

Proximates

. .

Water

g

0.207

Energy

kcal

6.993

Energy

kj

29.253

Protein

g

0.415

Total lipid (fat)

g

0.306

Carbohydrate, by difference

g

1.048

Fiber, total dietary

g

0.798

Ash

g

0.123

Minerals

. .

Calcium, Ca

mg

14.469

Iron, Fe

mg

0.341

Magnesium, Mg

mg

5.418

Phosphorus, P

mg

11.928

Potassium, K

mg

28.371

Sodium, Na

mg

0.357

Zinc, Zn

mg

0.116

Copper, Cu

mg

0.019

Manganese, Mn

mg

0.027

Selenium, Se

mcg

0.254

Vitamins

. .

Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid

mg

0.441

Thiamin

mg

0.008

Riboflavin

mg

0.008

Niacin

mg

0.076

Vitamin B-6

mg

0.007

Folate, total

mcg

0.210

Vitamin B-12

mcg

0.000

Vitamin A, IU

IU

7.623

Vitamin A, RE

mcg_RE

0.756

Vitamin E

mg_ATE

0.052

Lipids

. .

Fatty acids, total saturated

g

0.013

4:0

g

0.000

6:0

g

0.000

8:0

g

0.000

10:0

g

0.000

12:0

g

0.000

14:0

g

0.001

16:0

g

0.008

18:0

g

0.002

Fatty acids, total monounsaturated

g

0.150

16:1 undifferentiated

g

0.002

18:1 undifferentiated

g

0.148

20:1

g

0.000

22:1 undifferentiated

g

0.000

Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated

g

0.069

18:2 undifferentiated

g

0.066

18:3 undifferentiated

g

0.003

18:4

g

0.000

20:4 undifferentiated

g

0.000

20:5 n-3

g

0.000

22:5 n-3

g

0.000

22:6 n-3

g

0.000

Cholesterol

mg

0.000

Phytosterols

mg

1.596

Amino acids

Tryptophan

g

0.005

Threonine

g

0.016

Isoleucine

g

0.017

Leucine

g

0.026

Lysine

g

0.022

Methionine

g

0.008

Cystine

g

0.007

Phenylalanine

g

0.018

Tyrosine

g

0.013

Valine

g

0.022

Arginine

g

0.026

Histidine

g

0.012

Alanine

g

0.019

Aspartic acid

g

0.044

Glutamic acid

g

0.067

Glycine

g

0.028

Proline

g

0.019

Serine

g

0.020