LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL WORKS WHICH HAVE BEEN CONSULTED IN THE PREPARATION
OF THIS VOLUME.
CHINESE WORKS, WITH BRIEF NOTICES.
十三經註疏, 'The Thirteen Ching, with Commentary and Explanations.' This is
the great repertory of ancient lore upon the Classics. On the Analects, it
contains the 'Collection of Explanations of the Lun Yu,' by Ho Yen and
others (see p. 19), and 'The Correct Meaning,' or Paraphrase of Hsing Ping
(see p. 20). On the Great Learning and the Doctrine of the Mean, it
contains the comments and glosses of Chang Hsuan, and of K'ung Ying-ta
(孔穎達) of the T'ang dynasty.
新刻批點四書讀本, 'A new edition of the Four Books, Punctuated and Annotated,
for Reading.' This work was published in the seventh year of Tao-kwang
(1827) by a Kao Lin (高琳). It is the finest edition of the Four Books which
I have seen, in point of typographical execution. It is indeed a volume
for reading. It contains the ordinary 'Collected Comments' of Chu Hsi on
the Analects, and his 'Chapters and Sentences' of the Great Learning and
Doctrine of the Mean. The editor's own notes are at the top and bottom of
the page, in rubric.
四書朱子本義匯參, 'The Proper Meaning of the Four Books as determined by Chu
Hsi, Compared with, and Illustrated from, other Commentators.' This is a
most voluminous work, published in the tenth year of Ch'ien-lung, A.D.
1745, by Wang Pu-ch'ing (王步青), a member of the Han-lin College. On the
Great Learning and the Doctrine of the Mean, the 'Queries' (或問) addressed
to Chu Hsi and his replies are given in the same text as the standard
四書經註集證, 'The Four Books, Text and Commentary, with Proofs and
Illustrations.' The copy of this Work which I have was edited by a Wang
T'ing-chi (汪廷機), in the third
year of Chia-ch'ing, A.D. 1798. It may be called a commentary on the
commentary. The research in all matters of Geography, History, Biography,
Natural History, &c., is immense.
四書諸儒輯要, 'A Collection of the most important Comments of Scholars on the
Four Books.' By Li P'ei-lin (李沛霖); published in the fifty-seventh
K'ang-hsi year, A.D. 1718. This Work is about as voluminous as the 匯參, but
on a different plan. Every chapter is preceded by a critical discussion of
its general meaning, and the logical connexion of its several paragraphs.
This is followed by the text, and Chu Hsi's standard commentary. We have
then a paraphrase, full and generally perspicuous. Next, there is a
selection of approved comments, from a great variety of authors; and
finally, the reader finds a number of critical remarks and ingenious
views, differing often from the common interpretation, which are submitted
for his examination.
四書翼註論文, 'A Supplemental Commentary, and Literary Discussions, on the
Four Books.' By Chang Chan-t'ao [al. T'i-an] (張甄陶 [al. 惕菴]),
a member of the Han-lin college, in the early part, apparently, of the
reign of Ch'ien-lung. The work is on a peculiar plan. The reader is
supposed to be acquainted with Chu Hsi's commentary, which is not given;
but the author generally supports his views, and defends them against the
criticisms of some of the early scholars of this dynasty. His own
exercitations are of the nature of essays more than of commentary. It is a
book for the student who is somewhat advanced, rather than for the
learner. I have often perused it with interest and advantage.
四書遵註合講, 'The Four Books, according to the Commentary, with Paraphrase.'
Published in the eighth year of Yung Chang, A.D. 1730, by Wang Fu [al.
K'eh-fu] (翁復 [al. 克夫]). Every page is divided into two parts.
Below, we have the text and Chu Hsi's commentary. Above, we have an
analysis of every chapter, followed by a paraphrase of the several
paragraphs. To the paraphrase of each paragraph are subjoined critical
notes, digested from a great variety of scholars, but without the mention
of their names. A list of 116 is given who are thus laid under
contribution. In addition, there are maps and illustrative figures at the
commencement; and to each Book there are prefixed biographical notices,
explanations of peculiar allusions, &c.
新增四書補註附考備旨, 'The Four Books, with a
Complete Digest of Supplements to the Commentary, and additional
Suggestions. A new edition, with Additions.' By Tu Ting-chi (杜定基).
Published A.D. 1779. The original of this Work was by Tang Lin (鄧林), a
scholar of the Ming dynasty. It is perhaps the best of all editions of the
Four Books for a learner. Each page is divided into three parts. Below, is
the text divided into sentences and members of sentences, which are
followed by short glosses. The text is followed by the usual commentary,
and that by a paraphrase, to which are subjoined the Supplements and
Suggestions. The middle division contains a critical analysis of the
chapters and paragraphs; and above, there are the necessary biographical
and other notes.
四書味根錄, 'The Four Books, with the Relish of the Radical Meaning.' This
is a new Work, published in 1852. It is the production of Chin Ch'ang,
styled Chi'u-t'an (金澂, 字秋潭), an officer and scholar, who, returning,
apparently to Canton province, from the North in 1836, occupied his
retirement with reviewing his literary studies of former years, and
employed his sons to transcribe his notes. The writer is fully up in all
the commentaries on the Classics, and pays particular attention to the
labours of the scholars of the present dynasty. To the Analects, for
instance, there is prefixed Chiang Yung's History of Confucius, with
criticisms on it by the author himself. Each chapter is preceded by a
critical analysis. Then follows the text with the standard commentary,
carefully divided into sentences, often with glosses, original and
selected, between them. To the commentary there succeeds a paraphrase,
which is not copied by the author from those of his predecessors. After
the paraphrase we have Explanations (解). The book is beautifully printed,
and in small type, so that it is really a multum in parvo, with
日講四書義解, 'A Paraphrase for Daily Lessons, Explaining the Meaning of the
Four Books.' This work was produced in 1677, by a department of the
members of the Han-lin college, in obedience to an imperial rescript. The
paraphrase is full, perspicuous, and elegant.
御製周易折中; 書經傳說彙纂; 詩經傳說彙纂; 禮記義疏; 春秋傳說彙纂. These works form together a
superb edition of the Five Ching, published by imperial authority
in the K'ang-hsi and Yung-chang reigns. They contain the standard views
(傳); various opinions (說); critical decisions of the editors (晏) ;
prolegomena; plates or cuts; and other apparatus for the student.
毛西河先生全集, 'The Collected Writings of Mao Hsi-ho.' See prolegomena, p.
20. The voluminousness of his Writings is understated there. Of 經集, or
Writings on the Classics, there are 236 sections, while his 文集, or other
literary compositions, amount to 257 sections. His treatises on the Great
Learning and the Doctrine of the Mean have been especially helpful to me.
He is a great opponent of Chu Hsi, and would be a much more effective one,
if he possessed the same graces of style as that 'prince of literature.'
四書拓餘說, 'A Collection of Supplemental Observations on the Four Books.'
The preface of the author, Ts'ao Chih-shang (曹之升), is dated in 1795, the
last year of the reign of Ch'ien-lung. The work contains what we may call
prolegomena on each of the Four Books, and then excursus on the most
difficult and disputed passages. The tone is moderate, and the learning
displayed extensive and solid. The views of Chu Hsi are frequently well
defended from the assaults of Mao Hsi-ho. I have found the Work very
鄉黨圖考, 'On the Tenth Book of the Analects, with Plates.' This Work was
published by the author, Chiang Yung (江永), in the twenty-first Ch'ien-lung
year, A.D. 1761, when he was seventy-six years old. It is devoted to the
illustration of the above portion of the Analects, and is divided into ten
sections, the first of which consists of woodcuts and tables. The second
contains the Life of Confucius, of which I have largely availed myself in
the preceding chapter. The whole is a remarkable specimen of the minute
care with which Chinese scholars have illustrated the Classical Books
四書釋地; 四書釋地續; 四書釋地又續; 四書釋地三續. We may call these volumes-- 'The
Topography of the Four Books; with three Supplements.' The Author's name
is Yen Zo-ch'u (閻若璩). The first volume was published in 1698, and the
second in 1700. I have not been able to find the dates of publication of
the other two, in which there is more biographical and general matter than
topographical. The author apologizes for the inappropriateness of their
titles by saying that he could not
help calling them Supplements to the Topography, which was his 'first
皇清經解, 'Explanations of the Classics, under the Imperial Ts'ing
Dynasty.' See above, p. 20. The Work, however, was not published, as I
have there supposed, by imperial authority, but under the superintendence,
and at the expense (aided by other officers), of Yuan Yuan (阮元),
Governor-general of Kwang-tung and Kwang-hsi, in the ninth year of the
last reign, 1829. The publication of so extensive a Work shows a public
spirit and zeal for literature among the high officers of China, which
should keep foreigners from thinking meanly of them.
孔子家語, 'Sayings of the Confucian Family.' Family is to be taken in the
sense of Sect or School. In Liu Hsin's Catalogue, in the subdivision
devoted to the Lun Yu, we find the entry:-- 'Sayings of the Confucian
Family, twenty-seven Books,' with a note by Yen Sze-ku of the T'ang
dynasty,-- 'Not the existing Work called the Family Sayings.' The original
Work was among the treasures found in the wall of Confucius's old house,
and was deciphered and edited by K'ung An-kwo. The present Work is by Wang
Su of the Wei (魏) dynasty, grounded professedly on the older one, the
blocks of which had suffered great dilapidation during the intervening
centuries. It is allowed also, that, since Su's time, the Work has
suffered more than any of the acknowledged Classics. Yet it is a very
valuable fragment of antiquity, and it would be worth while to incorporate
it with the Analects. My copy is the edition of Li Yung (李容), published in
1780. I have generally called the Work 'Narratives of the School.'
聖廟祀典圖考, 'Sacrificial Canon of the Sage's Temples, with Plates.' This
Work, published in 1826, by Ku Yuan, styled Hsiang-chau (顧沅, 字湘舟), is a
very painstaking account of all the Names sacrificed to in the temples of
Confucius, the dates of their attaining to that honour, &c. There are
appended to it Memoirs of Confucius and Mencius, which are not of so much
十子全書, 'The Complete Works of the Ten Tsze.' See Morrison's
Dictionary, under the character 子. I have only had occasion, in connexion
with this Work, to refer to the writings of Chwang-tsze (莊子) and Lieh-tsze
(列子). My copy is an edition of 1804.
歷代名賢列女氏姓譜, 'A Cyclop¬?dia of Surnames, or Biographical Dictionary, of
the Famous Men and Virtuous Women of the Successive Dynasties.' This is a
very notable work of its class; published in 1793, by 蕭智漢, and extending
through 157 chapters or Books.
文獻通考, 'General Examination of Records and Scholars.' This astonishing
Work, which cost its author, Ma Twan-lin (馬端臨), twenty years' labour, was
first published in 1321. R¬?musat says,-- 'This excellent Work is a
library in itself, and if Chinese literature possessed no other, the
language would be worth learning for the sake of reading this alone.' It
does indeed display all but incredible research into every subject
connected with the Government, History, Literature, Religion, &c., of the
empire of China. The author's researches are digested in 348 Books. I have
had occasion to consult principally those on the Literary Monuments,
embraced in seventy-six Books, from the 174th to the 249th.
朱彝尊經義考, 'An Examination of the Commentaries on the Classics,' by Chu I-tsun.
The author was a member of the Han-lin college, and the work was first
published with an imperial preface by the Ch'ien-lung emperor. It is an
exhaustive work on the literature of the Classics, in 300 chapters or
續文獻通考, 'A Continuation of the General Examination of Records and
Scholars.' This Work, which is in 254 Books, and nearly as extensive as
the former, was the production of Wang Ch'i (王圻), who dates his preface in
1586, the fourteenth year of Wan-li, the style of the reign of the
fourteenth emperor of the Ming dynasty. Wang Ch'i brings down the Work of
his predecessor to his own times. He also frequently goes over the same
ground, and puts things in a clearer light. I have found this to be the
case in the chapters on the classical and other Books.
二十四史, 'The Twenty-four Histories.' These are the imperially- authorized
records of the empire, commencing with the 'Historical Records,' the work
of Sze-ma Ch'ien, and ending with the History of the Ming dynasty, which
appeared in 1742, the result of the joint labours of 145 officers and
scholars of the present dynasty. The extent of the collection may be
understood from this, that my copy, bound in English fashion, makes
sixty-three volumes, each one larger than this. No nation has a history so
thoroughly digested; and on the whole it is trustworthy. In pre-
paring this volume, my necessities have been confined mostly to the
Works of Sze-ma Ch'ien, and his successor, Pan Ku (班固), the Historian of
the first Han dynasty.
歷代統記表, 'The Annals of the Nation.' Published by imperial authority in
1803, the eighth year of Ch'ia-ch'ing. This Work is invaluable to a
student, being, indeed, a collection of chronological tables, where every
year, from the rise of the Chau dynasty, B.C. 1121, has a distinct column
to itself, in which, in different compartments, the most important events
are noted. Beyond that date, it ascends to nearly the commencement of the
cycles in the sixty-first year of Hwang-ti, giving -- not every year, but
the years of which anything has been mentioned in history. From Hwang-ti
also, it ascends through the dateless ages up to P'an-ku, the first of
歷代疆域表, 'The Boundaries of the Nation in the successive Dynasties.' This
Work by the same author, and published in 1817, does for the boundaries of
the empire the same service which the preceding renders to its chronology.
歷代沿革表, 'The Topography of the Nation in the successive Dynasties.'
Another Work by the same author, and of the same date as the preceding.
The Dictionaries chiefly consulted have been:--
The well-known Shwo Wan (說文解字), by Hsu Shan, styled Shu-chung ( 許慎,
字叔重), published in A.D. 100; with the supplement (繫傳) by Hsu Ch'ieh (徐鍇),
of the southern Tang dynasty. The characters are arranged in the Shwo Wan
under 540 keys or radicals, as they are unfortunately termed.
The Liu Shu Ku (六書故), by Tai T'ung, styled Chung-ta (戴侗, 字仲達), of our
thirteenth century. The characters are arranged in it, somewhat after the
fashion of the R Ya (p. 2), under six general divisions, which
again are subdivided, according to the affinity of subjects, into various
The Tsze Hui (字彙), which appeared in the Wan-li (萬歷) reign of the Ming
dynasty (1573-1619). The 540 radicals of the Shwo Wan were reduced in this
to 214, at which number they have since continued.
The K'ang-hsi Tsze Tien (康熙字典), or Kang-hsi Dictionary, prepared by
order of the great K'ang-hsi emperor in 1716. This
is the most common and complete of all Chinese dictionaries for common
The I Wan Pi Lan (蓺文備覽), 'A Complete Exhibition of all the Authorized
Characters,' published in 1787; 'furnishing,' says Dr. Williams, 'good
definitions of all the common characters, whose ancient forms are
The Pei Wan Yun Fu (佩文韻府), generally known among foreigners as 'The
Kang-hsi Thesaurus.' It was undertaken by an imperial order, and published
in 1711, being probably, as Wylie says, 'the most extensive work of a
lexicographical character ever produced.' It does for the phraseology of
Chinese literature all, and more than all, that the Kang-hsi dictionary
does for the individual characters. The arrangement of the characters is
according to their tones and final sounds. My copy of it, with a
supplement published about ten years later, is in forty-five large
volumes, with much more letter-press in it than the edition of the
Dynastic Histories mentioned on p. 133.
The Ching Tsi Tswan Ku, ping Pu Wei (經籍□(纂上饗下)詁并補遺), 'A Digest of the
Meanings in the Classical and other Books, with Supplement,' by, or rather
under the superintendence of, Yuan Yuan (p. 132). This has often been
found useful. It is arranged according to the tones and rhymes like the
characters in the Thesaurus.
TRANSLATIONS AND OTHER WORKS.
CONFUCIUS SINARUM PHILOSOPHUS; sive Scientia Sinensis Latine Exposita.
Studio et opera Prosperi Intorcetta, Christiani Herdritch, Francisci
Rougemont, Philippi Couplet, Patrum Societatis JESU. Jussu Ludovici Magni.
THE WORKS OF CONFUCIUS; containing the Original Text, with a Translation.
Vol. 1. By J. Marshman. Serampore, 1809. This is only a fragment of 'The
Works of Confucius.'
THE FOUR BOOKS; Translated into English, by Rev. David Collie, of the
London Missionary Society. Malacca, 1828.
L'INVARIABLE MILIEU; Ouvrage Moral de Tseu-sse, en Chinois et en Mandchou,
avec une Version litt¬?rale Latine, une Traduction Fran¬?oise, &c. &c. Par
M. Abel-R¬?musat. A Paris, 1817.
LE TA HIO, OU LA GRANDE …TUDE; Traduit en Fran¬?oise, avec une Version
Latine, &c. Par G. Pauthier. Paris, 1837.
Y-KING; Antiquissimus Sinarum Liber, quem ex Latina Interpretatione P.
Regis, aliorumque ex Soc. JESU PP. edidit Julius Mohl. Stuttgarti¬? et
M…MOIRES concernant L'Histoire, Les Sciences, Les Arts, Les Múurs, Les
Usages, &c., des Chinois. Par les Missionaires de P¬?kin. A Paris, 1776-
HISTOIRE G…N…RALE DE LA CHINE; ou Annales de cet Empire. Traduites du
Tong-Kien-Kang-Mou. Par le feu P¬?re Joseph-Annie-Marie de Moyriac de
Mailla, Jesuite Fran¬?oise, Missionaire ¬? Pekin. A Paris, 1776- 1785.
NOTITIA LINGU∆ SINIC∆. Auctore P. Pr¬?mare. Malacc¬?, cura Academi¬?
THE CHINESE REPOSITORY. Canton, China, 20 vols., 1832-1851.
DICTIONNAIRE DES NOMS, Anciens et Modernes, des Villes et Arrondissements
de Premier, Deuxi¬?me, et Troisi¬?me ordre, compris dans L'Empire Chinois,
&c. Par …douard Biot, Membre du Conseil de la Soci¬?t¬? Asiatique. Paris,
THE CHINESE. By John Francis Davis, Esq., F.R.S., &c. In two volumes.
CHINA: its State and Prospects. By W. H. Medhurst, D. D., of the London
Missionary Society. London, 1838.
L'UNIVERS: Histoire et D¬?scription des tous les Peuples. Chine. Par M. G.
Pauthier. Paris, 1838.
HISTORY OF CHINA, from the earliest Records to the Treaty with Great
Britain in 1842. By Thomas Thornton, Esq., Member of the Royal Asiatic
Society. In two volumes. London, 1844.
THE MIDDLE KINGDOM: A Survey of the Geography, Government, Education,
Social Life, Arts, Religion, &c., of the Chinese Empire. By S. Wells
Williams, LL.D. In two volumes. New York and London, 1848. The Second
Edition, Revised, 1883.
THE RELIGIOUS CONDITION OF THE CHINESE. By Rev. Joseph Edkins, B. A., of
the London Missionary Society. London, 1859.
CHRIST AND OTHER MASTERS. By Charles Hardwood, M. A., Christian Advocate
in the University of Cambridge. Part III. Religions of China, America, and
Oceanica. Cambridge, 1858.
INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF. CHINESE CHARACTERS. By J. Edkins, D.D.
THE STRUCTURE OF CHINESE CHARACTERS, under 300 Primary Forms. By John
Chalmers, M.A., LL.D. Aberdeen, 1882.