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Himalayan Journals or Notes of A Naturalist Index

 

Appendix


L.

TABLE OF ELEVATIONS.

In the following tables I have given the elevations of 300 places, chiefly computed from barometric data. For the computations such observations alone were selected as were comparable with contemporaneous ones taken at the Calcutta Observatory, or as could, by interpolation, be reduced to these, with considerable accuracy: the Calcutta temperatures have been assumed as those of the level of the sea, and eighteen feet have been added for the height of the Calcutta Observatory above the sea. I have introduced two standards of comparison where attainable; namely, 1. A few trigonometrical data, chiefly of positions around Dorjiling, measured by Lieutenant-Colonel Waugh, the Surveyor-General, also a few measured by Mr. Muller and myself, in which we can put full confidence: and, 2. A number of elevations in Sikkim and East Nepal, computed by simultaneous barometer observations, taken by Mr. Muller at Dorjiling. As the Dorjiling barometer was in bad repair, I do not place so much confidence in these comparisons as in those with Calcutta. The coincidence, however, between the mean of all the elevations computed by each method is very remarkable; the difference amounting to only thirty feet in ninety-three elevations; the excess being in favour of those worked by Dorjiling. As the Dorjiling observations were generally taken at night, or early in the morning, when the temperature is below the mean of the day, this excess in the resulting elevations would appear to prove, that the temperature correction derived from assuming the Calcutta observations to correspond with eighteen feet above the level of the sea at Sikkim, has not practically given rise to much error.

I have not added the boiling-point observations, which afford a further means of testing the accuracy of the barometric computations; and which will be found in section J of this Appendix.

The elevation of Jillapahar is given as computed by observations taken in different months, and at different hours of the day; from which there will be seen, that owing to the low temperature of


 

[ 465 ]

 

sunrise in the one case, and of January and October in the others, the result for these times is always lowest.

Moat of the computations have been made by means of Oltmann's tables, as drawn up by Lieutenant-Colonel Boileau, and printed at the Magnetic Observatory, Simla; very many were worked also by Bessell’s tables in Taylor’s “Scientific Memoirs,” which, however, I found to give rather too high a result on the averages; and I have therefore rejected most of them, except in cases of great elevation and of remarkable humidity or dryness, when the mean saturation point is an element that should not be disregarded in the computation. To these the letter B is prefixed. By far the majority of these elevations are not capable of verification within a few feet; many of them being of villages, which occupy several hundred feet of a hill slope: in such cases the introduction of the refinement of the humidity correction was not worth the while.

 


 

SERIES I.—Elevations on the Grand Trunk-road.   February, 1848.

 

 

No.
of
Obs.
Name of Locality Elevation
Feet
1
2
3
2
4
1
2
1
1
1
1
4
1
3
1
3
3
1
1
2
4
1
3
4
4
Burdwan
Gyra
Fitcoree
Tofe Choney
Maddaobung
Paras-nath saddle
Paras-nath cast peak
Paras-nath flagstaff
Paras-nath lower limit of Clematis and Berberis
Doomree
Highest point on grand trunk-road
Belcuppee
Hill 236th mile-stone
Burree
Hill 243rd mile-stone
Chorparun
Dunwah
Bahra
284th mile-stone
Sheergotty
Muddunpore
312th mile-stone
Naurungabad
Baroon (on Soane)
Dearee (on Soane)
93
630
860
912
1230
B.4231
4215
4428
3162
996
1446
1219
1361
1169
1339
1322
625
479
474
460
402
365
337
344
332


 

[ 466 ]

 


 

SERIES II.—Elevations in the Soane Valley.   March, 1848.

 

 

No.
of
Obs.
Name of Locality Elevation
Feet
3
6
2
4
3
6
4
1
3
1
9
4
4
4
7
Tilotho
Akbarpore
Rotas palace
Tura
Soane-pore
Kosdera
Panchadurma
Bed of Soane above Panchadurma
Pepura
Bed of Soane river
Chahnchee
Hirrah
Kotah
Kunch
Sulkun
395
403
1489  
453
462
445
492
482
587
400
499
531
541
561
684


 


 

SERIES III.—Elevations on the Kymore Hills.   March, 1848.

 

 

No.
of
Obs.
Name of Locality Elevation
Feet
2
9
1
1
9
Roump
Shahgunj
Amoee
Goorawul
Mirzapore (on the Ganges)
1090
1102
  818
  905
  362


 

[ 467 ]

 

 

SERIES IV.—Elevations near Dorjiling.   1848 to 1850.

 

 

Number
of Obs.
Name of Locality Elevation
Feet
 
9
110
104
99
93
37
————
Sum 452
=======
 
27
84
37
7
83
74
95
18
————
Sum 434
=======
 
103
 
16
 
38
25
 
2
2
7
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
12
2
5
8
 
4
4
1
13
13
2
2
 
13
1
4
 
8
Jillapahar (Mr. Hodgson’s house)
         sunrise
         9.50 p.m.
         noon
         2.40 p.m.
         4 p.m.
         sunset
 
 
 
Ditto by Monthly observations.
January
February
March
April
July
August
September
October
 
 
 
 
The Dale (Mr. Muller’s)
         by trigonometry
Superintendent’s house
         by trigonometry
Colinton (Mr. Muller’s)
Leebong
         by trigonometry
Summit of Jillapahar
Smith’s hotel
Monastery hill below the Dale
The Dale by barometer
 
 
Monastery hill by trigonometry
 
 
Ging (measured from Dale)
Guard-house at Great Rungeet
Bed of Great Rungeet at cane-bridge
Guard-house at Little Rungeet
Sinchul top
         by trigonometry
Saddle of road over shoulder of Sinchul
Senadah (Pacheem) bungalow
Pacheem village
Kursiong bungalow
Punkabaree
Rungniok village
Tonglo, summit
         by trigonometry
Tonglo, Saddle below summit
Tonglo, Rocks on ascent of
Sourse of Balasun
Source of Balasun by Dorjiling
Goong ridge
 
7301
7443
7457
7477
7447
7447
—————
Mean 7429
=========
 
7400
7445
7517
7582
7412
7421
7454
7351
—————
Mean 7448
=========
 
B. 6957
6952
B. 6932
6932
B. 7179
B. 5993
*6021
B. 7896
6872
B. 214·1
6952
—————
7166
7165·3
=========
 
B. 5156
B. 1864
818
1672
8655
8607
7412
7258
3855
B. 4813
1815
B. 4565
B. 10·078
10·079·4
B. 10·008
B. 8148
7436
7451
7441

* To summit of chimney, which may be assumed to be
30 feet above where the barometer was hung.


 

[ 468 ]

 

 

SERIES V.—Elevations in East Nepal, October to December, 1848.

 

 

Number
of
Obs.
Name of Locality By
Calcutta
Barom.
By
Dorjiling
Barom.
 
1
7
7
5
2
1
3
8
3
5
4
4
3
1
3
3
3
1
3
2
8
3
3
3
2
2
10  
6
1
1
4
2
2
9
1
1
4
1
3
1
2
1
4
1
4
3
1
8
1
3
4
7
2
4
1
 
Source of Myong river
Myong valley, camp in
Myong valley
Purmiokzong
Shoulder of Nanki
         Shepherd's huts on do.
Summit of Nanki
         Camp on Nanki
Jummanoo
Sulloobong
Bheti village
Sakkiazong village
Camp on ridge of mountain
Peak on Sakkiazong
Makarumbi
Pemmi river
Tambur river at junction with Pemmi
Camp on Tambur, Nov. 13
Camp on Tambur, Nov. 14
Chintam village
Mywa Guola
Tambur river, Nov. 18
Tambur river, Nov. 19
Taptiatok village
Loontoong village
Tambur river, Nov. 23
Wallanchoon village
Tuquoroma
Wallanchoon pass
Foot of pass-road
Yangma Guola
Base of great moraine
Top of moraine above ditto
Yangma village camp
Lake bed in valley
Upper ditto (Pabuk)
Yangma valley camp, Dec. 2
Kambachen pass
Camp below ditto
Kambachen village
Camp in valley
Choonjerma pass
Camp below ditto
Yalloong river-terrace
Camp side of valley
Yankutang village
Saddle of road south of Khabili
Khabang village
Spur of Sidingbah, crossed Nov. 10
Yangyading village
Sablakoo
Iwa river, Dec. 12
Iwa river, Dec. 13
Singaleh, camp on
Islumbo pass
(feet)
4,798
4,345
3,801
4,507
7,216
8,999
9,994
9,315
4,320
5,244
4,683
5,804
8,315
9,356
5,444
2,149
1,289
1,418
1,600
3,404
2,079
2,515
3,113
4,207
5,615
8,066
10,384
12,889
B. 16,764
13,501
9,236
12,098
B.      679
B. 13,516
15,186
B. 16,038
10,997
B. 15,770
11,643
11,378
11,454
B. 15,259
13,289
10,449
10,080
5,530
5,746
5,495
6,057
4,082
4,735
3,747
6,134
9,263
10,388
(feet)
 
4,345
3,763
4,535
 
 
10,045
9,324
4,404
5,311
 
5,847
8,391
9,289
5,525
2,262
1,487
1,496
 
 
2,185
2,574
3,289
4,359
5,738
8,096
10,389
12,999
16,748
13,518
9,322
12,199
 
13,488
 
 
11,001
 
11,611
 
11,514
 
13,287
 
10,035
5,598
 
5,515
5,980
4,145
4,718
3,818
6,184
9,328
 
Number
of
Obs.
Name of Locality By
Calcutta
Barom.
By
Dorjiling
Barom.
 
4
6
5
6
6
7
8
1
1
6
1
 
5
1
1
10  
9
1
9
1
22  
7
15  
7
21  
1
1
1
1
4
5
5
5
1
6
 
Kulhait valley, camp in
Lingcham village
Bed of Great Rungeet, December 20
Lingdam village, December 21
Nampok village
Bhomsong
Mainom top
Neon-gong Goompa
Pass from Teesta to Rungeet
Lingdam village
Great Rungeet below Tassiding
Tassiding temples
Sunnook, camp on
Bed of Ratong
Pemiongchi temple
Camp at Pemiongchi village
Tchonpong village
Bed of Rungbi river
Camp on Ratong river
Doobdi Goompa
Yoksun
Dumpook
Buckim
Mon Lepcha top
Jongri
Ratong below Mon Lepcha
Ratong below Yoksun
Catsuperri lake
Catsuperri temple
Tengling village
Rungbee river bed
Changachelling temple
Kulhait river
Saddle of Hee hill
Camp on Hee hill
(feet)
6,406
4,892
1,805
5,552
4,354
1,556
Tr. 10,702
5,225
6,824
5,349
2,030
4,840
3,955
2,481
7,083
6,551
4,952
3,165
3,100
6,493
5,600
6,646
8,625
13,090
B. 13,170
7,069
3,729
6,068
6,493
5,295
3,230
6,805
3,075
7,289
6,609
(feet)
6,374
4,848
1,874
5,556
4,501
1,533
B. 10,613
 
 
5,401
 
 
4,018
 
 
6,616
5,003
 
3,242
6,451
5,635
6,710
8,693
13,045
13,184
7,217
3,851
6,009
6,476
5,219
3,350
6,850
3,243
 
6,744


 

[ 470 ]

 

 

SERIES VII.—Elevations in the Sikkim Terai and Plains of India,
Gangetic Delta and Jheels.

 

 

Number
of
Obs.
Name of Locality Elevation
Feet
3
12  
3
4
4
4
5
5
5
1
6
43  
24  
12  
13  
54  
33  
13  
4
3
5
Siligoree Bungalow
Titalya
Sahibgunj (west of Titalya)
Bhatgong
Thakya-gunj
Bhojepore
Rummai
Rangamally
Belakoba
Mela-meli
Kishengunj
Mahanuddy river between Kishengunj and Maldah
Mahanuddy river between Maldah and Rampore Bauleah
Rampore (Mr. Bell’s)
Dacca (Mr. Atherton’s)
Jheels, Dacca to Pundua
Megna river (June 1st-6th
Soormah (June 9th)
Pundua (June 10th and 11th)
Pundua (Sept. 7th)
Pundua (Nov. 16th and 17th)
302
326
231
225
284
404
293
262
368
337
131
153
98
130
72
*– ·003
+ ·008
+ ·048
+ ·018
– ·016
– 0·66


 

 

SERIES VIII.—Elevations in Sikkim, May to December, 1849.

 

 

Number
of
Obs.
Name of Locality By
Calcutta
Barom.
By
Dorjiling
Barom.
 
2
4
1
2
4
8
4
4
2
8
10  
16  
 
Mik, on Tendong
Namtchi, camp on spur
Tendong summit
Temi, Teesta valley
Nampok, Teesta valley
Lingmo, Teesta valley
Lingtam spur, Teesta valley
Gorh, Teesta valley
Bling-bong, Teesta valley
Lingo village, Teesta valley
Singtam, May 14 to 16
Singtam (higher on hill) Oct. 30 to Nov. 2
(feet)
3,912
5,608
B. 8,671
4,771
B. 5,138
B. 2,861
B. 4,743
B. 4,061
B. 2,657
B. 2,724
B. 4,435
B. 4,575
(feet)
 
 
Tr. 8,663
 
5,033
2,838
4,867
4,195
2,711
2,839
4,477

* The observations marked thus * are the differences in inches between the readings of my barometer at the station, and that at the Calcutta observatory, which is 18 feet above the sea-level.



 

[ 471 ]

 

 

SERIES VIII.—(Continued)

 

 

Number
of
Obs.
Name of Locality By
Calcutta
Barom.
By
Dorjiling
Barom.
 
5
2
7
27  
37  
4
4
3
8
1
1
33  
53  
1
4
74  
47  
1
1
2
43  
20  
30  
1
3
2
5
2
6
2
2
56  
 
 
 
1
1
1
1
1
1
 
Niong
Namgah
Chakoong
Choongtam, May
Choongtam, August
Dholep, Lachen
Dengha, Lachen
Latong, Lachen
Kampo Samdong
Chateng
Chateng, lower on spur
Lamteng village
Zemu Samdong
Snow bed across Zemu river
Camp on banks of Zemu
Junction of Thlonok and Zemu
Camp on banks of Zemu river
Zemu river, June 13
Zemu river, high up, June 13
Yeunga (Lachen valley)
Tallum Samdong
Tungu, July
Tungu, October
Palung plains
Sitong
Kongra Lama pass
Yeumtso (in Tibet)
Bhomtso (in Tibet)
Cholamoo lakes (in Tibet)
Donkia pass, October
Donkia pass, September
Momay Samdong
 
 
 
Donkia, September 13
Kinchinjhow, September 14
Sebolah pass
South shoulder of Donkia, September 20
Mountain north of Momay, September 17
West shoulder of Donkia mountain, September 26
 
The following were measured trigonometrically:
Forked onkia mountain
Kinchinjhow mountain
Tomo-chamo, east top of Kinchinjhow
Thlonok mount, Peak on
Chango-khang mountain
Tukcham mountain, from Dorjiling
Chomiomo mountain
(feet)
 
4,229
4,371
5,245
5,247
6,120
6,337
6,471
7,315
8,819
8,493
8,900
9,026
9,828
10,223
10,864
12,064
12,422
13,281
10,196
11,540
12,779
12,799
15,697
15,372
15,745
16,808
18,590
16,900
18,589
18,387
15,362
 
 
 
16,876
17,495
17,604
18,257
(feet)
3,954
 
4,443
5,284
5,297
6,145
6,399
6,310
7,344
8,695
8,343
8,867
8,926
 
10,271
10,828
12,074
 
 
 
11,424
12,723
12,747
 
 
15,642
 
 
 
 
 
15,069
Measured
from   
Momay 
17,079
17,656
17,567
18,357
B. 17,394
B. 18,510
 
 
Tr. 20,870
Tr. 22,750
Tr. 21,000
Tr. 20,000
Tr. 20,600
Tr. 19,472
Tr. 22,700


 

[ 472 ]

 

 

SERIES VIII.—(Continued)

 

 

Number
of
Obs.
Name of Locality By
Calcutta
Barom.
Measured
by
Trig., etc.
 
 
 
 
 
 
48
  7
 
 
 
  2
  3
 
 
51
12
  8
  2
  3
  4
  3
  5
  7
  1
  3
  1
  3
17
  3
105  
  1
  2
  3
12
11
  2
  3
  5
  6
The following were measured trigonometrically:
Summit of Donkia (from Donkia pass and Bhomtso)
Tunkra Mountain, from Dorjiling
 
 
 
Yeumtong
Yeumtong, October
 
 
 
Snow bed above Yeumtong
Punying
 
 
Lachoong village, August
Lachoong village, October
Lacheepia
Tunkra pass
Rock on ascent to ditto
Keadom
Tukcham village
Rinkpo village
Laghep
Phieungoong
Barfonchen
Chola pass
Chumanako
Phadong
Tumloong, Nov. 3rd and 4th
Higher on hill, Nov. 16th to Dec. 9th
Yankoong
Tikbotang
Camp, Dec. 11th
Serriomsa
Dikkeeling
Singdong
Katong ghat, Teesta
Namten
Cheadam
(feet)
 
 
 
 
 
11,933
11,951
 
 
 
B. 15,971
B. 11,299
 
 
B.   8,712
B.   8,705
B. 15,293
B. 16,083
B. 13,078
B.   6,609
B.   3,849
B.   6,008
B. 10,423
B. 12,422
B. 11,233
B. 14,925
B. 12,590
B.   5,946
B.   5,368
B.   5,976
B.   3,867
B.   3,763
B.   2,952
B.   2,820
B.   4,952
B.   2,116
B.      735
B.   4,483
B.   4,653
(feet)
Tr. 22,650
Tr. 18,250
By
Dorjiling
Barometer
11,839
 
By
Yeumtong
Barometer
16,000
 
By
Der. Bar.
  8,474
 
15,231
 
13,144


 

[ 473 ]

 

 

SERIES IX.—Khasia Mountains, June to November, 1850.

 

 

Number
of
Obs.
Name of Locality Elevation
Feet
36
167  
102  
25
63
  1
  9
  1
32
  6
  9
63
  6
10
35
12
  9
  3
Churra (Mr. Inglis’s)
Churra bungalow opposite church, August
Churra bungalow, Oct., Nov.
Kala-panee bungalow
Moflong bungalow
Chillong hill
Syong bungalow
Hill south of ditto
Myrung bungalow, July
Myrung bungalow, Sept.
Chela
Nunklow
Nonkreem
Mooshye
Pomrang
Amwee
Joowye
Nurtiung
4,069
4,193
4,258
5,302
6,062
6,662
5,725
6,050
5,647
5,709
     80
4,688
5,601
4,863
5,143
4,105
4,387
4,178



 

 

SERIES X.—Soormah, Silhet, Megna, Chittagong, etc.

 

 

Number
of
Obs.
Name of Locality Elevation
Feet
27
38
36
24
12
10
72
  8
  2
16
  3
12
  4
17
10
Silhet (Mr. Stainforth’s)
Soormah river, between Silhet and Megna
Silchar
Megna river
Noacolly (Dr. Baker’s)
Noacolly on voyage to Chittagong
Chittagong (Mr. Sconce’s)
Chittagong flagstaff-hill at south head of harbour
Seetakoond hill
Seetakoond bungalow
Hat-Hazaree
Hattiah
Sidhee
Chittagong to Megua
Eastern Sunderbunds
133  
46  
116  
+ ·020*
– ·039  
0†
191  
151  
1,136  
– ·069*
– ·039  
– ·049  
– ·039  
– ·014†
+ ·002  

* Difference between barometer at station and Calcutta barometer.
† The observations were taken only when the boat was high and dry,
and above the mean level of the waters.

END