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Himalayan Journals or Notes of A Naturalist Index      Next Appendix G part 2-HI

 

Appendix


G. Part 1

ON THE RELATIVE HUMIDITY, AND ABSOLUTE AMOUNT OF VAPOUR CONTAINED IN THE ATMOSPHERE AT DIFFERENT ELEVATIONS IN THE SIKKIM HIMALAYA.

My observations for temperature and wet-bulb being for the most part desultory, taken at different dates, and under very different conditions of exposure, etc., it is obvious that those at one station are hardly, if at all, comparative with those of another, and I have therefore selected only such as were taken at the same date and hour with others taken at the Calcutta Observatory, or as can easily be reduced; which thus afford a standard (however defective in many respects) for a comparison. I need hardly remind my reader that the vapour-charged wind of Sikkim is the southerly one, which blows over Calcutta; that in its passage northwards to Sikkim in the summer months, it traverses the heated plains at the foot of the Himalaya, and ascending that range, it discharges the greater part of its moisture (120 to 140 inches annually) over the outer Himalayan ranges, at elevations of 4000 to 8000 feet. The cooling effect of the uniform covering of forest on the Sikkim ranges is particularly favourable to this deposition, but the slope of the mountains being gradual, the ascending currents are not arrested and cooled so suddenly as in the Khasia mountains, where the discharge is consequently much greater. The heating of the atmosphere, too, over the dry plains at the foot of the outer range, increases farther its capacity for the retention of vapour, and also tends to render the rain-fall less sudden and violent than on the Khasia, where the south wind blows over the cool expanse of the Jheels. It will be seen from the following observations, that in Sikkim the relative humidity of the atmosphere remains pretty constantly very high in the summer months, and at all elevations, except in the rearward valleys; and even there a humid atmosphere prevails up to 14,000 feet, everywhere within the influence of the snowy mountains. The uniformly high temperature which prevails throughout the summer, even at elevations of 17,000 and 18,000 feet, is no doubt proximately due to


 

[ 423 ]

 

the evolution of heat during the condensation of these vapours. It will be seen by the pages of my journal, that continued sunshine, and the consequent heating of the soil, is almost unknown during the summer, at any elevation on the outer or southward ranges of Dorjiling: but the sunk thermometer proves that in advancing northward into the heart of the mountains and ascending, the sun's effect is increased, the temperature of the earth becoming in summer considerably higher than that of the air. With regard to the observations themselves, they may be depended upon as comparable with those of Calcutta, the instruments having been carefully compared, and the cases of interpolation being few. The number of observations taken at each station is recorded in a separate column; where only one is thus recorded, it is not to be regarded as a single reading, but the mean, of several taken during an hour or longer period. I have rejected all solitary observations, even when accompanied by others at Calcutta; and sundry that were, for obvious reasons, likely to mislead. Where many observations were taken at one place, I have divided them into sets, corresponding to the hours at which alone the Calcutta temperature and wet-bulb thermometer are recorded,* in order that meteorologists may apply them to the solution of other questions relating to the distribution of heat and moisture. The Dorjiling observations, and those in the immediate neighbourhood of that station, appeared to me sufficiently numerous to render it worth while classing them in months, and keeping them in a series by themselves. The tensions of vapour are worked from the wet-bulb readings by Apjohn's formula and tables, corrected for the height of the barometer at the time. The observations, except where otherwise noted, are taken by myself.

* Sunrise; 9.50 a.m.; noon; 2.40 p.m.; 4 p.m., and sunset.


 

[ 424 ]

 

SERIES I. Observations made at or near Dorjiling.

JANUARY, 1849

 

DORJILING CALCUTTA
No.
of
Obs.
Place Elev.
(feet)
Hour Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens. Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens.
15
15
10
  8
  9
The Dale,*
Mr. Muller's
    
    
    
6956



9.50 a.m.
Noon
2.40 p.m.
4 p.m.
Sunset
429
458
483
486
465
324
338
374
378
371
105
120
109
108
  94
202
212
241
244
238
675
729
761
751
718
553
557
551
548
549
122
172
210
203
169
446
455
444
440
441
57      Mean 464 357 107 227 727 552 175 445
    Dorjiling     Calcutta  
Humidity
Vapour in cubic foot of atmosphere
0700
263 gr.
0562
486 gr.

* Observations to which the asterisk is affixed were taken by Mr. Muller.


 


JANUARY, 1850

 

DORJILING CALCUTTA
No.
of
Obs.
Place Elev.
(feet)
Hour Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens. Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens.
  3
  6
  3
  5
  5
  5
13
  4

  1
Jillapahar,
Mr. Hodgson's
    
    
    
    
    
Saddle of road
   at Sinchul
Pacheem
7430






7412

7258
Sunrise
9.50 a.m.
Noon
2.40 p.m.
4 p.m.
Sunset
Miscel.
   Do.

   Do.
328
395
424
419
411
387
419
411

398
301
347
380
378
385
356
399
364

387
27
48
44
41
26
31
20
47

11
186
219
246
244
250
226
263
233

252
515
669
741
783
774
724
779
677

716
485
551
517
514
595
547
601
572

505
  30
118
224
269
179
177
178
105

211
354
444
395
391
514
438
525
476

379
45      Mean 399 366 33 235 709 543 166 435

 
    Dorjiling     Calcutta  
Humidity
Vapour in cubic foot of atmosphere
0890
275 gr.
0580
486 gr.

 

[ 425 ]

 

FEBRUARY, 1850

 

DORJILING CALCUTTA
No.
of
Obs.
Place Elev.
(feet)
Hour Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens. Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens.
  6
18
12
12
17
19
13
Jillapahar
    
    
    
    
    
The Dale*
7430





6956
Sunrise
9.50 a.m.
Noon
2.40 p.m.
4 p.m.
Sunset
Misc.
369
429
448
448
440
424
408
347
386
413
374
356
358
351
22
43
35
74
84
66
57
219
251
276
241
226
228
222
600
728
798
824
811
763
699
542
588
587
579
581
607
598
  58
140
211
245
230
156
101
431
503
501
487
492
536
518
97      Mean 424 369 54 238 746 583 163 495
    Dorjiling     Calcutta  
Humidity
Vapour in cubic foot of atmosphere
0828
275 gr.
0590
540 gr.

* Observations to which the asterisk is affixed were taken by Mr. Muller.


 


MARCH, 1850

 

DORJILING CALCUTTA
No.
of
Obs.
Place Elev.
(feet)
Hour Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens. Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens.
10
  8
  5
  8
  6
  3
Jillapahar
    
    
    
    
Pacheem
7430




7258
9.50 a.m.
Noon
2.40 p.m.
4 p.m.
Sunset
Miscel.
442
455
464
455
431
448
427
430
440
434
415
446
15
25
24
21
16
02
290
293
303
297
278
310
816
882
913
901
829
850
641
570
532
520
637
748
175
312
381
381
192
102
602
472
416
399
590
848
40      Mean 449 432 17 295 865 608 257 555
    Dorjiling     Calcutta  
Humidity
Vapour in cubic foot of atmosphere
0940
342 gr.
0438
572 gr.

 

[ 426 ]

 

APRIL

 

DORJILING CALCUTTA
No.
of
Obs.
Place Elev.
(feet)
Hour Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens. Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens.
  3
  3
  1
  7
  2
  4
  3
Jillapahar, 1849
    
    
Dr. Campbell's, 1850
    
    
    
7430


6932


9.50 a.m.
Noon
2.40 p.m.
9.50 a.m.
Noon
4 p.m.
570
598
602
618
654
575
569
402
441
444
533
528
537
514
168
157
158
  85
126
  38
  55
266
305
308
417
411
423
392
903
970
977
867
913
886
828
713
645
734
663
688
721
730
190
325
243
204
225
165
  98
758
607
812
644
699
778
800
23      Mean 598 486 113 360 906 699 207 728
    Dorjiling     Calcutta  
Humidity
Vapour in cubic foot of atmosphere
0684
398 gr.
0523
765 gr.

* Observations to which the asterisk is affixed were taken by Mr. Muller.


 

MAY

 

DORJILING CALCUTTA
No.
of
Obs.
Place Elev.
(feet)
Hour Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens. Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens.
  3
45
Smith's Hotel, 1848
Colinton,* 1849
6863
7179
Miscel.
Miscel.
572
604
550
579
22
15
443
466
886
900
784
772
102
128
951
917
48   Mean 588 565 24 455 893 778 115 934
    Dorjiling     Calcutta  
Humidity
Vapour in cubic foot of atmosphere
0926
522 gr.
0698
990 gr.

 

JUNE

 

DORJILING CALCUTTA
No.
of
Obs.
Place Elev.
(feet)
Hour Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens. Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens.
40 Colinton,* 7179 Miscel. 609 576 33 483 855 784 71 952
    Dorjiling     Calcutta  
Humidity
Vapour in cubic foot of atmosphere
0895
539 gr.
0800
1017 gr.


 

[ 427 ]

 


JULY, 1848

 

DORJILING CALCUTTA
No.
of
Obs.
Place Elev.
(feet)
Hour Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens. Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens.
18
25
24
16
31
31
31
Jillapahar
    
    
    
The Dale,*
    
    
7430



6952

9.50 a.m.
Noon
2.40 p.m.
4 p.m.
6 a.m.
2 p.m.
6 p.m.
632
650
647
638
602
663
630
614
626
623
615
587
633
609
18
24
24
23
15
30
21
548
570
565
550
537
621
575
870
890
881
872
813
880
848
794
800
794
795
790
796
792
76
90
87
77
23
84
56
983
1001  
983
985
969
989
977
176        Mean 637 615 22 567 865 794 70 984
    Dorjiling     Calcutta  
Humidity
Vapour in cubic foot of atmosphere
0929
606 gr.
0800
1045 gr.

* Observations to which the asterisk is affixed were taken by Mr. Muller.


 


AUGUST, 1848

 

DORJILING CALCUTTA
No.
of
Obs.
Place Elev.
(feet)
Hour Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens. Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens.
23
21
17
13
31
31
31
Jillapahar
    
    
    
The Dale,*
    
    
7430



6952

9.50 a.m.
Noon
2.40 p.m.
4 p.m.
6 a.m.
2 p.m.
6 p.m.
642
647
647
639
605
653
628
624
633
628
625
595
636
618
18
14
19
14
10
17
10
567
584
574
568
551
628
591
858
872
874
865
808
872
837
791
792
793
795
788
792
787
67
80
81
70
20
80
50
973
976
979
984
962
976
959
167        Mean 637 623 15 580 855 791 64 973
    Dorjiling     Calcutta  
Humidity
Vapour in cubic foot of atmosphere
0995
625 gr.
0818
1035 gr.

* Observations to which the asterisk is affixed were taken by Mr. Muller.


 

SEPTEMBER, 1848

 

DORJILING CALCUTTA
No.
of
Obs.
Place Elev.
(feet)
Hour Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens. Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens.
28
23
23
21
30
30
30
Jillapahar
    
    
    
The Dale,*
    
    
7430



6952

9.50 a.m.
Noon
2.40 p.m.
4 p.m.
6 a.m.
2 p.m.
6 p.m.
608
624
624
620
574
649
608
593
603
596
596
562
608
590
15
21
28
24
12
41
18
511
528
516
516
495
573
543
870
885
881
869
809
888
847
784
781
774
771
783
774
766
  86
104
107
  98
  26
114
  81
952
943
922
914
948
923
899
185        Mean 615 593 23 526 864 776 88 929
    Dorjiling     Calcutta  
Humidity
Vapour in cubic foot of atmosphere
0932
572 gr.
0760
988 gr.

* Observations to which the asterisk is affixed were taken by Mr. Muller.


 


 

[ 428 ]

 


OCTOBER, 1848

 

DORJILING CALCUTTA
No.
of
Obs.
Place Elev.
(feet)
Hour Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens. Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens.
  6
  6
  6
  4
  8
  8
17
19
Jillapahar
    
    
Goong.
    Ditto
The Dale,*
    
    
7430


7436
7441
6952

Noon
2.40 p.m.
4 p.m.
Misc.
Misc.
6 a.m.
2 p.m.
6 p.m.
559
557
556
483
512
552
614
569
553
549
549
483
502
527
563
542
06
08
07
0
10
25
51
27
446
440
441
352
376
439
497
463
844
860
852
812
807
761
870
828
753
733
744
737
669
742
712
739
  91
127
108
  75
138
  19
158
  89
863
808
837
819
657
834
756
824
74      Mean 550 534 17 432 829 729 101 800
    Dorjiling     Calcutta  
Humidity
Vapour in cubic foot of atmosphere
0950
474 gr.
0658
855 gr.

 

NOVEMBER AND DECEMBER, 1848

 

DORJILING CALCUTTA
No.
of
Obs.
Place Elev.
(feet)
Hour Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens. Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens.
  4
  8
  6
  9
19
The Dale*
Nov./Dec.
    
December
    
6952



6 a.m.
2 p.m.
6 p.m.
2 p.m.
6 a.m.
456
600
506
497
440
414
483
447
417
405
42
117  
59
80
35
277
355
311
280
269
679
833
773
793
758
647
652
631
590
626
  32
181
142
203
132
610
621
579
505
569
46      Mean 499 433 67 298 767 629 138 577
    Dorjiling     Calcutta  
Humidity
Vapour in cubic foot of atmosphere
0798
340 gr.
0640
627 gr.

* Observations to which the asterisk is affixed were taken by Mr. Muller.


 


 

[ 429 ]

 

Comparison of Dorjiling and Calcutta.

 

    HUMIDITY WEIGHT OF VAPOUR IN
CUBIC FOOT OF AIR
No. of
Obs.
Month Dorjiling Calcutta Diff.
Dorjiling
Dorjiling Calcutta Diff.
Calcutta
102
  97
  40
  23
  48
  40
176
167
185
  74
  46
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
Nov. and Dec.
795  
828
940
684
926
895
929
+955  
932
950
798
572
590
438  
523
698
800
800
+818  
760
658
640
+224
+238
+502
+161
+228
+095
+129
+136
+172
+292
+158
268  
275
342
398
522
539
606
+625  
572
474
627
4.80  
540
572
765
990
1017  
1005  
+1035    
988
855
627
+212
+265
+230
+367
+462
+478
+399
+410
+416
+381
+287
998 Mean 0876   0663   +212 451 807 +355


 

It is hence evident, from nearly 1000 comparative observations, that the atmosphere is relatively more humid at Dorjiling than at Calcutta, throughout the year. As the southerly current, to which alone is due all the moisture of Sikkim, traverses 200 miles of land, and discharges from sixty to eighty inches of rain before arriving at Dorjiling, it follows that the whole atmospheric column is relatively drier over the Himalaya than over Calcutta; that the absolute amount of vapour, in short, is less than it would otherwise be at the elevation of Dorjiling, though the relative humidity is so great. A glance at the table at the end of this section appears to confirm this; for it is there shown that, at the base of the Himalaya, at an elevation of only 250 feet higher than Calcutta, the absolute amount of vapour is less, and of relative humidity greater, than at Calcutta.


 

[ 430 ]

 

SERIES II. Observations at various Stations and Elevations in the Himalaya of East Nepal and Sikkim.

ELEVATION 735 TO 2000 FEET

 

EAST NEPAL AND SIKKIM CALCUTTA
No.
of
Obs.
Locality Elev. Month Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens. Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens.
3
2
1
3
1
6
1
5
5
11  

10  
Katong Ghat, Teesta river
Great Rungeet, at bridge
   Ditto
Tambur river, E. Nepal
   Ditto
Bhomsong, Teesta river
   Ditto
Little Rungeet
Pemiongchi, Great Rungeet
Punkabaree
   Ditto
Guard house (Gt. Rungeet)
  735
  818
  818
1388
1457
1596
1596
1672
1840
1850
1850
1864
Dec.
April
May
Nov.
Nov.
Dec.
May
Jan.
Dec.
March
May
April
602
828
778
606
642
586
682
510
546
701
735
737
553
635
603
570
591
520
664
502
537
556
683
638
49
193  
175  
36
51
66
18
08
09
145  
52
99
447
588
528
473
507
399
647
377
424
472
687
592
732
958
917
733
773
716
826
585
735
792
837
924
567
619
783
627
634
570
774
580
662
626
779
670
165
339
134
106
139
146
  52
  05
  73
166
  58
254
468
557
947
571
585
474
923
489
642
570
938
660
48     Mean 663 588 75 512 794 658 136 652
  East Nepal
and Sikkim
Calcutta
Humidity
Weight of vapour
0717
557 gr.
0663
688 gr.


 

ELEVATION 2000 TO 3000 FEET

 

EAST NEPAL AND SIKKIM CALCUTTA
No.
of
Obs.
Locality Elev. Month Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens. Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens.
2
8
3
3
2
8
12  
8
3
Singdong
Mywa Guola, E. Nepal
Pemmi river, E. Nepal
Tambur river, E. Nepal
Blingbong (Teesta)
Lingo (Teesta)
Serriomsa (Teesta)
Lingmo (Teesta)
    Ditto
2116
2132
2256
2545
2684
2782
2820
2849
2952
Dec.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
May
May
Dec.
May
Dec.
605
662
556
573
726
758
641
686
564
534
575
539
516
640
673
568
646
535
71
87
17
57
86
85
73
40
29
419
481
426
394
597
666
469
610
420
721
757
629
750
817
907
708
879
695
529
687
623
637
736
777
624
749
665
192
  70
  06
113
  81
130
  84
130
  30
411
697
566
591
817
932
567
851
647
49     Mean 641 581 61 498 763 670 93 675
  East Nepal
and Sikkim
Calcutta
Humidity
Weight of vapour
0820
545 gr.
0740
713 gr.



 

[ 431 ]

 

ELEVATION 3000 TO 4000 FEET

 

EAST NEPAL AND SIKKIM CALCUTTA
No.
of
Obs.
Locality Elev. Month Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens. Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens.
5
9
3
2
2
7
7
1
3
1
1
2
5
Kulhait river
Ratong river
Tambur river
Chingtam
Tikbotang
Myong Valley
Iwa river
Ratong river
Tukcham
Pacheem village
Yankoong
Mikk
Sunnook
3159
3171
3201
3404
3763
3782
3783
3790
3849
3855
3867
3912
3986
Jan.
Jan.
Nov.
Nov.
Dec.
Oct.
Dec.
Jan.
Nov.
Jan.
Dec.
May
Dec.
498
442
530
548
565
614
475
562
688
545
500
661
479
470
430
500
490
534
584
456
411
654
463
436
639
455
28
12
30
58
31
30
19
151  
34
82
64
22
24
337
294
373
360
419
496
321
275
625
329
299
595
320
658
699
729
749
680
807
733
758
837
736
691
843
694
573
566
632
730
618
712
647
530
768
594
638
751
611
85
133  
97
19
62
95
86
228  
69
142  
53
92
83
477
466
582
802
555
755
611
414
904
513
593
856
542
48     Mean 547 502 45 388 740 644 96 621
  East Nepal
and Sikkim
Calcutta
Humidity
Weight of vapour
0858
423 gr.
0732
660 gr.

 

ELEVATION 4000 TO 5000 FEET

 

EAST NEPAL AND SIKKIM CALCUTTA
No.
of
Obs.
Locality Elev. Month Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens. Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens.
3
4
2
3
7
3
6
7
10  
5
5
2
16  
6
4
4
2
4
7
6
3
6
11  
9
Yangyading
Gorh
Namgah
Taptiatok (Tambur)
Myong Valley
Jummanoo
Nampok
Chakoong
Singtam
Namten
Purmiokshong
Rungniok
Singtam
Cheadam
Sablakoo
Bheti
Temi
Lingtam
Khersiong
    Ditto
Tassiding
Lingcham
Dikkeeling
Tchonpong
4111
4128
4229
4283
4345
4362
4377
4407
4426
4483
4521
4565
4575
4653
4676
4683
4771
4805
4813
4813
4840
4870
4952
4978
Dec.
May
Oct.
Nov.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
May
May
Dec.
Nov.
Jan.
Oct/Nov.
Dec.
Dec.
Nov.
May
May
Jan.
Mar.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
Jan.
 
520
664
572
513
591
604
496
578
624
447
605
547
638
514
501
590
598
604
510
536
520
485
620
494
 
436
590
541
458
578
500
491
576
617
443
565
443
601
466
449
523
501
566
452
455
466
461
553
347
84
74
31
55
13
104  
05
02
07
04
40
104  
37
48
52
67
97
38
58
81
54
24
67
147  
300
506
429
323
487
374
362
483
553
307
466
307
525
332
314
405
374
467
316
320
333
327
447
219
711
855
808
733
817
774
641
839
886
648
792
665
825
702
729
783
812
800
670
771
797
785
808
710
672
742
737
648
729
702
563
762
790
583
695
597
767
550
657
661
741
738
498
705
608
718
620
547
39
113  
71
85
88
72
78
77
96
65
97
68
58
152  
72
122  
71
62
172  
66
189  
67
188  
163  
663
834
819
614
797
731
462
889
969
495
715
517
901
442
632
639
834
820
370
738
538
771
559
439
137         Mean 557 504 54 387 765 668 97 675
  East Nepal
and Sikkim
Calcutta
Humidity
Weight of vapour
0837
433 gr.
0730
712 gr.

 

[ 432 ]

 

ELEVATION 5000 TO 6000 FEET

 

EAST NEPAL AND SIKKIM CALCUTTA
No.
of
Obs.
Locality Elev. Month Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens. Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens.
4
4
2
7
5
3
4
6
8
8
7
6
8
5
6
3
8
6
3
4
6
16  
2
4
3
3
3
3
2
3
3
22  
21  
20  
21  
21  
Nampok
Tengling
Choongtam, sunrise
Choongtam, 9.50 a.m.
Choongtam, noon
Choongtam, 2.45 p.m.
Choongtam, 4 p.m.
Choongtam, sunset
Choongtam, 9.50 a.m.
Choongtam, noon
Choongtam, 2.40 p.m.
Choongtam, 4 p.m.
Choongtam, sunset
Sulloobong
Lingdam
Makaroumbi
Khabang
Lingdam
Yankutamg
Namtchi
Yoksun
    Ditto
Loongtoon
Sakkiazong
Phadong, 8 a.m.
Phadong, 9.50 a.m.
Phadong, noon
Phadong, 2.40 p.m.
Phadong, 4 p.m.
Phadong, sunset
Tumloong
Tumloong, 9. 50 a.m.
Tumloong, noon
Tumloong, 2.40 p.m.
Tumloong, 4 p.m.
Tumloong, sunset
5075
5257
5368
5368
5368
5368
5368
5368
5368
5368
5368
5368
5368
5277
5375
5485
5505
5554
5564
5608
5619
5619
5677
5625
5946
5946
5946
5946
5946
5946
5368
5976
5976
5976
5976
5976
May
Jan.
May
May
May
May
May
May
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Nov.
Dec.
Nov.
Dec.
Dec.
Dec.
May
Jan.
Jan.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov/Dec.
Nov/Dec.
Nov/Dec.
Nov/Dec.
Nov/Dec.
658
447
549
715
710
664
635
614
763
788
729
695
669
576
443
521
551
450
436
671
427
430
453
541
519
559
607
574
555
537
642
541
573
573
547
518
608
391
547
589
594
594
592
605
661
678
665
668
654
512
430
481
473
437
417
612
340
339
428
509
508
530
565
547
528
526
626
500
517
514
505
485
50
56
02
126  
116  
70
43
09
102  
110  
64
27
15
64
13
40
78
13
19
59
87
91
25
32
11
29
42
27
27
11
16
41
56
59
42
33
537
257
438
504
513
513
510
532
640
677
649
655
627
390
293
350
340
301
280
544
214
213
292
358
383
413
465
438
410
408
570
375
396
391
380
355
831
654
782
898
927
954
936
891
853
866
864
853
836
794
688
725
750
710
695
877
682
662
721
783
750
809
856
866
855
806
838
751
797
813
802
767
747
381
739
800
799
787
790
771
789
788
788
793
785
658
599
605
647
565
631
749
581
519
638
661
675
679
648
622
619
674
775
619
601
580
586
612
  84
273
  43
  98
128
167
146
120
  64
  78
  76
  60
  51
136
  89
120
103
145
  64
128
101
143
  83
122
  75
130
208
244
236
132
  63
132
196
233
216
155
845
247
826
1000  
999
959
971
915
967
965
963
980
956
634
521
532
611
466
579
850
492
399
595
639
670
678
613
562
557
667
924
557
524
489
499
545
260         Mean 577 533 45 438 776 678 98 700
  East Nepal
and Sikkim
Calcutta
Humidity
Weight of vapour
0865
470 gr.
0730
734 gr.

 

[ 433 ]

 

ELEVATION 6000 TO 7000 FEET

 

EAST NEPAL AND SIKKIM CALCUTTA
No.
of
Obs.
Locality Elev. Month Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens. Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens.
5
11  
11  
4
2
4
4
3
1
10  
4
6
7
4
Runkpo
Leebong
    Ditto
Dholeep
Iwa River
Dengha
Kulhait River
Latong
Doobdi
Pemiongchi
Keadom
Hee-hill
Dumpook
Changachelling
6008
6021
6021
6133
6159
6368
6390
6391
6472
6584
6609
6677
6678
6828
Nov.
Feb.
Jan.
May
Dec.
Aug.
Dec.
Oct.
Jan.
Jan.
Aug.
Jan.
Jan.
Jan.
575
478
478
605
412
667
419
540
466
407
635
408
402
506
548
437
434
599
405
640
419
532
362
358
600
341
318
318
27
41
44
06
07
27
0
08
104  
49
35
67
84
188  
440
300
297
520
269
597
283
416
231
228
523
215
198
198
795
749
669
894
696
861
713
555
787
663
797
640
685
683
734
597
562
814
602
788
609
441
580
544
775
580
538
536
  61
152
107
  80
  94
  73
104
114
207
119
  22
  60
147
148
810
517
460
046
527
962
539
305
490
434
925
489
426
423
76     Mean 500 451 49 337 728 621 106 597
  East Nepal
and Sikkim
Calcutta
Humidity
Weight of vapour
0845
360 gr.
0701
611 gr.

ELEVATION 7000 TO 8000 FEET

 

EAST NEPAL AND SIKKIM CALCUTTA
No.
of
Obs.
Locality Elev. Month Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens. Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens.
1
2
8
1
1
4
8
Pemiongchi
Goong
Kampo-Samdong
Hee-hill
Ratong river
Source of Balasun
Goong ridge
7083
7216
7329
7289
7143
7436
7441
Jan.
Nov.
May/Aug.
Jan.
Jan.
Oct.
Oct.
462
490
591
513
365
483
512
335
485
582
264
253
483
502
127
  05
  09
249
112
0
  10
210
355
493
163
157
352
376
768
797
836
728
600
812
807
518
691
774
566
529
737
669
250
106
  62
162
  71
  75
138
396
705
922
466
412
819
657
35 Dorjiling   Mean 488 415   73 301 764 641 128 625
  From mean of
above and Dorjiling
Calcutta
Humidity
Weight of vapour
0826
385 gr.
0668
728 gr.

 

[ 434 ]

 

ELEVATION 8000 TO 9000 FEET

 

EAST NEPAL AND SIKKIM CALCUTTA
No.
of
Obs.
Locality Elev. Month Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens. Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens.
  4
  2
  1
  2
  3
  4
  6
  9
  1
11
12
  7
  4
  7
10
12
10
10
  4
  5
  6
  8
11
11
  7
  6
  8
10
  1
  1
Sinchul
Sinchul
Ascent of Tonglo
Tambur river
Sakkiazong
Chateng
Buckim
Buckim
Chateng
Lachoong, 7 a.m.
Lachoong, 9.50 a.m.
Lachoong, noon
Lachoong, 2.40 p.m.
Lachoong, 4 p.m.
Lachoong, sunset
Lachoong, Miscellaneous
Lamteng, 6 a.m.
Lamteng, 9.50 a.m.
Lamteng, noon
Lamteng, 2.40 p.m.
Lamteng, 4 p.m.
Lamteng, sunset
Zemu Samdong, 7 a.m.
Zemu Samdong, 9.50 a.m.
Zemu Samdong, noon
Zemu Samdong, 2.40 p.m.
Zemu Samdong, sunset
Zemu Samdong, 4 p.m.
Goong
Tendong (top)
8607
8607
8148
8081
8353
8418
8659
8659
8752
8777
8777
8777
8777
8777
8777
8777
8884
8884
8884
8884
8884
8884
8976
8976
8976
8976
8976
8976
8999
8663
Jan.
Apr.
May
Nov.
Nov.
Oct.
Jan.
Jan.
May
|
|
| Aug.
| and
| Oct.
|
|
| May,
| June,
| July
| and
| Aug.
|
|
| June
| and
| July
|
|
Nov.
May
417
668
562
380
497
438
302
339
672
533
602
616
581
586
555
559
539
628
628
583
562
533
557
597
631
610
579
538
490
555
343
446
544
339
374
432
228
331
607
511
553
571
564
538
543
496
520
562
562
544
547
525
553
528
571
586
561
526
485
500
74
222  
18
41
123  
06
74
08
65
22
49
45
17
48
12
63
19
66
66
39
15
08
04
69
60
24
18
12
05
55
216
310
434
213
241
299
143
207
536
388
447
475
464
424
432
368
400
461
461
435
438
407
448
412
473
500
459
407
355
373
663
969
868
717
740
792
686
698
897
830
871
901
880
875
845
859
595
883
920
922
923
881
804
863
880
896
893
827
797
886
569
754
789
641
624
775
494
522
768
789
799
794
800
794
787
752
564
787
780
784
771
774
798
790
798
782
790
773
691
781
  94
215
  79
  76
116
  17
192
176
129
  41
  72
107
  80
  81
  58
107
  31
  96
140
138
152
107
  06
  73
  82
114
103
  54
106
105
472
866
967
599
566
926
366
403
904
967
999
983
1007  
981
959
858
464
959
939
950
914
922
997
969
994
944
970
920
705
943
193       Mean 545 500   45 388 837 737   98 847
  East Nepal
and Sikkim
Calcutta
Humidity
Weight of vapour
0858
423 gr.
0730
875 gr.

 

ELEVATION 9000 TO 10,000 FEET

 

EAST NEPAL AND SIKKIM CALCUTTA
No.
of
Obs.
Locality Elev. Month Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens. Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens.
4
8
4
1
1
Yangma Guola
Nanki
Singalelah
Sakkiazong
Zemu river
9279
9320
9295
9322
9828
Nov.
Nov.
Dec.
Nov.
June
378
423
362
535
600
331
383
357
333
476
  47
  40
  05
202
124
207
249
227
209
343
727
522
709
800
933
614
483
621
573
819
113
  39
  88
227
114
549
352
560
478
1062  
18       Mean 460 376   84 247 738 622 116 600
  East Nepal
and Sikkim
Calcutta
Humidity
Weight of vapour
0747
280 gr.
0724
628 gr.

 

[ 435 ]

 

ELEVATION 10,000 TO 11,000 FEET

 

EAST NEPAL AND SIKKIM CALCUTTA
No.
of
Obs.
Locality Elev. Month Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens. Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens.
13
  5
  4
  2
  2
  4
10
  4
  3
16
17
  9
  8
  9
15
  4
Tonglo
Nanki
Yalloong river
Tonglo top
Yeunga
Zemu river
Wallanchoon
Laghep
Laghep
Thlonok river, 7 a.m.
Thlonok river, 9.50 a.m.
Thlonok river, noon
Thlonok river, 2.40 p.m.
Thlonok river, 4 p.m.
Thlonok river, sunset
Yangma Valley
10,008
10,024
10,058
10,079
10,196
10,247
10,384
10,423
10,423
10,486
10,486
10,486
10,486
10,486
10,486
10,999
May
Nov.
Dec.
May
Oct.
June
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
June
June
June
June
June
June
Dec.
515
428
377
499
459
454
379
460
376
485
576
561
548
534
498
316
502
355
296
479
447
442
302
424
370
472
514
506
506
506
489
243
13
73
81
20
12
12
77
36
06
13
62
55
42
28
09
73
376
225
183
348
311
306
187
287
238
339
392
382
381
381
359
149
888
795
777
894
795
846
765
809
753
790
874
900
885
887
855
744
808
658
621
805
771
751
619
680
694
751
788
793
797
787
780
619
  80
137
156
  89
  24
  95
146
129
  59
  39
  86
107
  88
100
  75
123
1030  
633
560
1018  
915
856
558
681
712
856
965
979
991
962
938
558
123       Mean 467 428 38 303 828 733   95 826
  East Nepal
and Sikkim
Calcutta
Humidity
Weight of vapour
0878
335 gr.
0740
870 gr.

 

ELEVATION 11,000 TO 12,000 FEET

 

EAST NEPAL AND SIKKIM CALCUTTA
No.
of
Obs.
Locality Elev. Month Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens. Temp. Dew
Point
Diff. Tens.
  3
  3
  1
12
  6
  8
  5
  6
  6
  2
10
  9
  5
  7
  4
10
  7
Barfonchen
Punying
Kambachen village
Tallum, 7 a.m.
Tallum, 9.50 a.m.
Tallum, noon
Tallum, 2.40 p.m.
Tallum, 4 p.m.
Tallum, sunset
Kambachen Valley
Yeumtong, 7 a.m.
Yeumtong, 9.50 a.m.
Yeumtong, noon
Yeumtong 2.40 p.m.
Yeumtong, 4 p.m.
Yeumtong, sunset
Yeumtong, Miscellaneous
11,233
11,299
11,378
11,482
11,482
11,482
11,482
11,482
11,482
11,484
11,887
11,887
11,887
11,887
11,887
11,887
11,887
Nov.
Aug.
Dec.
July
July
July
July
July
July
Dec.

| Aug.,
| Sep.,
| and
| Oct.

Oct.
368
502
433
504
581
579
557
543
488
304
444
536
545
488
484
420
435
319
495
325
478
505
508
502
501
473
260
438
489
483
474
471
359
371
49
07
108  
26
76
71
55
42
15
44
06
47
62
14
13
61
64
198
367
203
347
380
384
377
375
340
161
302
360
353
342
338
229
239
763
845
800
850
881
897
893
903
866
699
830
875
897
872
852
606
837
696
788
612
803
797
813
806
794
800
595
789
787
772
772
778
585
697
  67
  57
188
  47
  84
  84
  87
109
  66
104
  41
  88
125
100
  74
  21
140
  719
  963
  544
1010
  993
1043
1020
  981
1001
  515
  967
  959
  917
  915
  934
  497
  720
104       Mean 483 438   45 311 833 746   87   865
  East Nepal
and Sikkim
Calcutta
Humidity
Weight of vapour
0860
346 gr.
0760
900 gr.
 

Next Appendix G part 2-HI