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Appendix


A.

METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS IN BEHAR, AND IN THE VALLEYS OF THE SOANE AND GANGES.

 

 

Most of the instruments which I employed were constructed by Mr. Newman, and with considerable care: they were in general accurate, and always extremely well guarded, and put up in the most portable form, and that least likely to incur damage; they were further frequently carefully compared by myself. These are points to which too little attention is paid by makers and by travellers in selecting instruments and their cases. This remark applies particularly to portable barometers, of which I had five at various times. Although there are obvious defects in the system of adjustment, and in the method of obtaining the temperature of the mercury, I found that these instruments invariably worked well, and were less liable to derangement and fracture than any I ever used; the best proof I can give of this is that I preserved three uninjured during nearly all my excursions, left two in India, and brought a third home myself that had accompanied me almost throughout my journey.

In very dry climates these and all other barometers are apt to leak, from the contraction of the box-wood plug through which the tube passes into the cistern. This must, in portable barometers, in very dry weather, be kept moist with a sponge. A small iron bottle of pure mercury to supply leakage should be supplied with every barometer, as also a turnscrew. The vernier plate and scale should be screwed, not soldered on the metal sheath, as if an escape occurs in the barometer-case the solder is acted upon at once. A table of


 

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corrections for capacity and capillarity should accompany every instrument, and simple directions, etc., in cases of trifling derangement, and alteration of neutral point.

The observations for temperature were taken with every precaution to avoid radiation, and the thermometers were constantly compared with a standard, and the errors allowed for. The maximum thermometer with a steel index, I found to be extremely liable to derangement and very difficult to re-adjust. Negretti's maximum thermometer was not known to me during my journey. The spirit minimum thermometers again, are easily set to rights when out of order, but in every one (of six or seven) which I took to India, by several makers, the zero point receded, the error in some increasing annually, even to –6° in two years. This seems due to a vaporisation of the spirit within the tube. I have seen a thermometer of this description in India, of which the spirit seemed to have retired wholly into the bulb, and which I was assured had never been injured. In wet-bulb observations, distilled water or rain, or snow water was used, but I never found the result to differ from that obtained by any running fresh water, except such as was polluted to the taste and eye.

The hours of observation selected were at first sunrise, 9 a.m., 3 p.m., sunset, and 9 p.m., according to the instructions issued to the Antarctic expedition by the Royal Society. In Sikkim, however, I generally adopted the hours appointed at the Surveyor General's office, Calcutta; viz., sunrise, 9h. 50m. a.m., noon, 2h. 40m. p.m., 4 p.m., and sunset, to which I added a 10 p.m. observation, besides many at intermediate hours as often as possible. Of these the 9h. 50m. a.m. and 4 p.m. have been experimentally proved to be those of the maximum and minimum of atmospheric pressure at the level of the sea in India, and I did not find any great or marked deviation from this at any height to which I attained, though at 15,000 or 16,000 feet the morning maximum may occur rather earlier.

The observations for nocturnal (terrestrial) radiation were made by freely suspending thermometers with naked bulbs, or by laying them on white cotton, wool, or flannel; also by means of a thermometer placed in the focus of a silvered parabolic reflector. I did not find that the reflector possessed any decided advantage over


 

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the white cotton: the means of a number of observations taken by each approximated closely, but the difference between individual observations often amounted to 2°.

Observations again indicative of the radiation from grass, whether dewed or dry, are not strictly comparable; not only does the power of radiation vary with the species, but much more with the luxuriance and length of the blades, with the situation, whether on a plane surface or raised, and with the subjacent soil. Of the great effect of the soil I had frequent instances; similar tufts of the same species of grass radiating more powerfully on the dry sandy bed of the Soane, than on the alluvium on its banks; the exposure being equal in both instances. Experiments for the surface-temperature of the soil itself, are least satisfactory of any:—adjoining localities being no less affected by the nature, than by the state of disintegration of the surface, and by the amount of vegetation in proximity to the instrument.

The power of the sun's rays in India is so considerable, and protracted through so long a period of the day, that I did not find the temperature of springs, or of running water, even of large deep rivers, so constant as was to be expected.

The temperature of the earth was taken by sinking a brass tube a yard long in the soil.

A thermometer with the bulb blackened affords the only means the traveller can generally compass, of measuring the power of the sun's rays. It should be screened or put in a blackened box, or laid on black wool.

A good Photometer being still a desideratum, I had recourse to the old wedge of coloured glass, of an uniform neutral tint, the distance between whose extremes, or between transparency and total opacity, was one foot. A moveable arm carrying a brass plate with a slit and a vernier, enables the observer to read off at the vanishing point of the sun's limb, to one five-hundredth of an inch. I generally took the mean of five readings as one, and the mean of five of these again I regarded as one observation; but I place little dependence upon the results. The causes of error are quite obvious. As far as the effects of the sun's light on vegetation are concerned, I am inclined to think that it is of more importance to register


 

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the number of hours or rather of parts of each hour, that the sun shines, and its clearness during the time. To secure valuable results this should be done repeatedly, and the strength of the rays by the black-bulb thermometer registered at each hour. The few actinometer observations will be found in another part of the Appendix.

The dew-point has been calculated from the wet-bulb, by Dr. Apjohn's formula, or, where the depression of the barometer is considerable, by that as modified by Colonel Boileau.* The saturation-point was obtained by dividing the tension at the dew-point by that at the ordinary temperature, and the weight of vapour, by Daniell's formula.

The following summary of meteorological observations is alluded to at vol. i., p. 15.





 
I.--Table-land of Birbhoom and Behar, from Taldanga to Dunwah. Average elevation 1,135 feet.

 

It is evident from these observations, that compared with Calcutta, the dryness of the atmosphere is the most remarkable feature of this table-land, the temperature not being high; and to this, combined with the sterility of the soil over a great part of the surface, must be attributed the want of a vigorous vegetation. Though so favourably exposed to the influence of nocturnal radiation, the amount of the latter is small. The maximum depression of a thermometer laid on grass never exceeded 10°, and averaged 7°; whereas the average depression of the dew-point at the same hour amounted to 25° in the morning. Of course no dew was deposited even in the clearest star-light night.

* Journal of Asiatic Society, No. 147 (1844), p.135.


 

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  February 1848
Hour Sunrise 9 a.m. 3 p.m. 9 p.m.
TEMPERATURE
    Mean
    Max.
    Min.
    Range
56·6
65·2
46·3
18·9
70·1
77·0
61·2
15·8
75·5
81·7
65·2
16·5
61·7
66·2
55·5
10·7
WET-BULB
    Mean
    Max. Depression
    Min. Depression
48·2
12·5
  6·0
53·7
19·3
14·3
55·3
22·5
16·7
49·3
20·5
  9·0
Elasticity of Vapour ·276 ·264 ·248 ·248
DEW-POINT
    Mean
    Max.
    Min.
    Max. Depression
    Min. Depression
39·5
52·0
23·3
31·7
10·4
37·9
52·7
24·5
39·2
24·3
36·0
46·8
24·3
48·4
34·9
36·1
50·0
*9·1
56·9
16·2
Weight of Vapour in cubic feet 3·088 2·875 2·674 2·745
SATURATION
    Mean
    Max.
    Min.
·550
·680
·330
·330
·450
·260
·260
·320
·190
·410
·590
·140
Number of observations 7 7 7 10

 
Extreme variations of temperature 35·4°
Extreme variations of relative humidity ·540 
Extreme diff. solar and nocturnal radiation    96·5°

*Taken during a violent N.W. dust-storm.


 

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SOLAR RADIATION
MORNING
Hour Th. Black
Bulb
Diff. Phot.
9.30 a.m.
10 a.m.
10 a.m.
9 a.m.
9 a.m.
9 a.m.
77·0
69·5
77·0
63·5
61·2
67·0
130
124
137
  94
106
114
53·0
54·5
60·0
30·5
44·8
47·0
--
10·320
--
10·230
--
10·350
Mean 69·2 117·5 48·1 10·300
AFTERNOON
Hour Th. Black
Bulb
Diff. Phot.
3.30 p.m.
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
3.30 p.m.
3 p.m.
81·7
80·5
81·5
72·7
72·5
109
120
127
105
110
27·3
39·5
45·5
32·3
37·5
--
10·320
10·330
10·230
10·390
Mean 77·8 114·2 68·4 10·318

NOCTURNAL RADIATION
SUNRISE
  Exposed
thermometer
On earth On grass
Temperature
Mean diff. from air
Max. diff. from air
Number of observations
51·1  
4·0
9·0
6
48·3  
2·5
3·7
3
46·6  
6·2
9·0
5
NINE P.M.
  Exposed
thermometer
On earth On grass
Temperature
Mean diff. from air
Max. diff. from air
Number of observations
56·4  
5·3
7·5
7
53·8  
4·9
5·5
6
54·4  
7·2
10·0  
7

 

On one occasion, and that at night, the dew-point was as low as 11·5°, with a temperature of 66°, a depression rarely equalled at so low a temperature: this phenomenon was transient, and caused by the passage of a current of air loaded with dust, whose particles possibly absorbed the atmospheric humidity. From a comparison of the night and morning observations of thermometers laid on grass, the earth, and freely exposed, it appears that the grass parts with its heat much more rapidly than the earth, but that still the effect of radiation is slight, lowering its temperature but 2° below that of the freely exposed thermometer.

As compared with the climate of Calcutta, these hills present a remarkable contrast, considering their proximity in position and moderate elevation.

The difference of temperature between Calcutta and Birbhoom,


 

[ 363 ]

 

deduced from the sunrise, morning and afternoon observations, amounts to 4°, which, if the mean height of the hills where crossed by the road, be called 1,135 feet, will be equal to a fall of one degree for every 288 feet.

In the dampness of its atmosphere, Calcutta contrasts very remarkably with these hills; the dew-point on the Hoogly averaging 51·3°, and on these hills 38°, the corresponding saturation-points being 0·559 and 0·380.

The difference between sunrise, forenoon and afternoon dew-points at Calcutta and on the hills, is 13·6° at each observation; but the atmosphere at Calcutta is relatively drier in the afternoon than that of the hills; the difference between the Calcutta sunrise and afternoon saturation-point being 0·449, and that between the hill sunrise and afternoon, 0·190. The march of the dew-point is thus the same in both instances, but owing to the much higher temperature of Calcutta, and the greatly increased tension of the vapour there, the relative humidity varies greatly during the day.

In other words, the atmosphere of Calcutta is loaded with moisture in the early morning of this season, and is relatively dry in the afternoon: in the hills again, it is scarcely more humid at sunrise than at 3 p.m. That this dryness of the hills is partly due to elevation, appears from the disproportionately moister state of the atmosphere below the Dunwah pass.




 
II.—Abstract of the Meteorological observations taken in the Soane Valley
(mean elevation 422 feet).


 

The difference in mean temperature (partly owing to the sun's more northerly declination) amounts to 2·5° of increase in the Soane valley, above that of the hills. The range of the thermometer from day to day was considerably greater on the hills (though fewer observations were there recorded): it amounted to 17·2° on the hills, and only 12·8° in the valley. The range from the maximum to the minimum of each day amounts to the same in both, above 20°. The extreme variations in temperature too coincide within 1·4°.

The hygrometric state of the atmosphere of the valley differs most


 

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decidedly from that of the hills. In the valley dew is constantly formed, which is owing to the amount of moisture in the air, for nocturnal radiation is more powerful on the hills. The sunrise and 9 p.m. observations in the valley, give a mean depression of the dew-point below the air of 12·3°, and those at the upper level of 21·2°, with no dew on the hills and a copious deposit in the valley. The corresponding state of the atmosphere as to saturation is 0·480 on the hills and 0·626 in the valley.

The vegetation of the Soane valley is exposed to a less extreme temperature than that of the hills; the difference between solar and nocturnal radiation amounting here only to 80·5°, and on the hills to 96·5°. There is no material difference in the power of the sun's rays at the upper and lower levels, as expressed by the blackbulb thermometer, the average rise of which above one placed in the shade, amounted to 48° in both cases, and the maximum occurred about 11 a.m. The decrease of the power of the sun's rays in the afternoon is much the most rapid in the valley, coinciding with a greater reduction of the elasticity of vapour and of humidity in the atmosphere.

The photometer observations show a greater degree of sun's light on the hills than below, but there is not at either station a decided relation between the indications of this instrument and the black-bulb thermometer. From observations taken elsewhere, I am inclined to attribute the excess of solar light on the hills to their elevation; for at a far greater elevation I have met with much stronger solar light, in a very damp atmosphere, than I ever experienced in the drier plains of India. In a damp climate the greatest intensity may be expected in the forenoon, when the vapour is diffused near the earth's surface; in the afternoon the lower strata of atmosphere are drier, but the vapour is condensed into clouds aloft which more effectually obstruct the sun's rays. On the Birbhoom and Behar hills, where the amount of vapour is so small that the afternoon is but little drier than the forenoon, there is little difference between the solar light at each time. In the Soane valley again, where a great deal of humidity is removed from the earth's surface and suspended aloft, the obstruction of the sun's light is very marked.


 

[ 365 ]

 

DUNWAH TO SOANE RIVER, AND UP SOANE TO TURA
  February 10–19th
Hour Sunrise 9 a.m. 3 p.m. 9 p.m.
TEMPERATURE
    Mean
    Max.
    Min.
    Range
57·6
62·0
53·5
  8·5
74·0
81·0
63·5
17·5
77·6
87·5
71·0
16·5
64·5
68·7
60·0
  8·7
WET-BULB
    Mean
    Max. Depression
    Min. Depression
51·7
  8·5
3·8
59·5
18·5
  4·0
59·9
26·0
6·8
55·5
12·5
2·5
Elasticity of Vapour 0·352 0·382 0·357 0·370
DEW-POINT
    Mean
    Max.
    Min.
    Max. Depression
    Min. Depression
46·1
53·6
40·6
16·9
  7·0
48·5
56·7
38·0
33·5
  6·8
46·4
60·0
36·0
44·2
11·0
47·5
55·6
41·0
24·1
  4·4
Weight of Vapour in cubic feet 3·930 4·066 3·658 4·014
SATURATION
    Mean
    Max.
    Min.
·680
·787
·566
·460
·818
·338
·352
·703
·237
·572
·860
·452
Number of observations 10   8   9 10

 
Extreme variations of temperature 34·0°
Extreme variations of relative humidity ·623 
Extreme diff. solar and nocturnal radiation    80·5°



 

[ 366 ]

 

NOCTURNAL RADIATION
SUNRISE
  Exposed
thermometer
On earth On grass
Temperature
Mean diff. from air
Max. diff. from air
Number of observations
53·2  
4·5
8·5
9
54·0  
3·7
9·0
9
51·5  
6·2
7·5
8
NINE P.M.
  Exposed
thermometer
On earth On grass
Temperature
Mean diff. from air
Max. diff. from air
Number of observations
59·9  
4·6
11·5  
10
60·7  
3·8
10·5  
10
56·4  
8·1
13·5  
10

 
SOLAR RADIATION
MORNING
Time Th. Black
Bulb
Diff. Phot.
9 a.m.
11 a.m.
10.30 a.m.
10 a.m.
10 a.m.
10.30 a.m.
70·0
81·0
71·5
72·0
80·0
78·0
125
119
126
117
122
128
55·0
38·0
54·5
45·0
42·0
50·0
10·300
10·230
10·300
10·220
--
--
Mean 75·4 122·8 47·4 10·262
AFTERNOON
Time Th. Black
Bulb
Diff. Phot.
4 p.m.
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
3 p.m.
76·5
80·0
76·0
87·5
  90
105
102
126
13·5
25·0
26·0
38·5
--
10·210
10·170
--
Mean 80·0 105·7 25·7 10·190

NOCTURNAL RADIATION FROM PLANTS
  SUNRISE NINE P.M.
Air temperature 59·5 55·0 67·5 67·0 64·3
Calotropis -- 49·5 -- -- 58·5
Difference --   5·5 -- -- 5·83
Argemone 57·0 47·0 53·0 56·0 57·0
Difference   2·5   8·0 14·0 11·0   7·3



 

[ 367 ]

 

III.—VALLEY OF SOANE RIVER, TURA TO SULKUN
(Mean elev. 517 feet)
  February 20th to March 3rd
Hour Sunrise 9 a.m. 3 p.m. 9 p.m.
TEMPERATURE
    Mean
    Max.
    Min.
    Range
56·8
70·0
50·0
20·0
82·0
89·0
69·0
20·0
88·6
94·7
81·5
13·2
68·0
74·0
61·0
13·0
WET-BULB
    Mean
    Max. Depression
    Min. Depression
52·5
10·0
  1·5
61·2
24·3
12·0
62·4
30·2
14·5
56·8
15·0
  6·0
Elasticity of Vapour 0·380 0·385 0·289 0·369
DEW-POINT
    Mean
    Max.
    Min.
    Max. Depression
    Min. Depression
48·3
53·1
41·1
17·3
  5·4
48·7
60·2
40·3
45·2
22·0
40·8
50·9
32·3
57·2
25·1
47·4
51·8
42·6
27·1
10·2
Weight of Vapour in cubic feet 4·240 4·097 2·975 3·933
SATURATION
    Mean
    Max.
    Min.
·754
·831
·570
·342
·488
·226
·211
·598
·154
·511
·703
·415
Number of observations 12 11 11 11

 
Extreme variation of temperature 44·7°
Extreme variation of relative humidity ·677 
Extreme diff. solar and nocturnal radiation    100°



 

[ 368 ]

 

NOCTURNAL RADIATION
SUNRISE
  Exposed
thermometer
On earth On grass
Temperature
Mean diff. from air
Max. diff. from air
Number of observations
51·7  
5·1
8·0
9
52·4  
3·4
7·0
9
48·8  
7·0
11·5  
9
NINE P.M.
  Exposed
thermometer
On earth On grass
Temperature
Mean diff. from air
Max. diff. from air
Number of observations
61·2  
6·8
10·5  
10
64·3  
4·6
8·5
9
55·8
11·8
17·0
9

 
SOLAR RADIATION
MORNING
Time Temp. Black
Bulb
Diff. Phot.
11.30 a.m.
10.30 a.m.
Noon
Noon
Noon
Noon
85·5
89·0
90·0
85·0
86·0
90·0
129
132
132
130
138
138
44·5
43·0
42·0
45·0
52·0
48·0
--
--
10·140
--
--
--
Mean 87·6 133 45·8 10·140
AFTERNOON
Time Temp. Black
Bulb
Diff. Phot.
3 p.m.
--
--
--
--
85·5
92·5
92·0
89·5
93·5
116
128
120
128
144
30·5
35·5
28·0
38·5
50·5
--
--
--
--
--
Mean 90·6 127 36·6 --

NOCTURNAL RADIATION FROM PLANTS
SUNRISE
Air
temperature
Barley Diff. Calo-
tropis
Diff. Arge-
mone
Diff.
61·0
57·0
57·0
58·5
57·0
50·0
50·5
56·0
56
46
52
52
52
45
43
--
5·0
11·0  
5·0
6·5
5·0
5·0
7·5
--
56·5
48·0
--
--
--
45·5
--
--
4·5
9·0
--
--
--
4·5
--
--
57·0
50·0
50·0
--
--
--
--
49·0
4·0
7·0
7·0
--
--
--
--
7·0
55·9 49·4 6·4 50·0 6·0 51·5 6·2
NINE P.M.
Air
temperature
Barley Diff. Calo-
tropis
Diff. Arge-
mone
Diff.
68·5
70·0
69·0
74·0
62·5
67·5
61·0
--
--
--
--
51·5
67·5
50·0
--
--
--
--
11·0
10·0
11·0
--
65·0
57·0
59·0
--
62·5
--
--
5·0
12·0  
15·0  
--
5·0
--
56·0
67·0
57·0
--
--
--
--
12·5
  3·0
12·0
--
--
--
--
67·5 56·3 10·7 60·9 9·3 60·0 9·2



 

[ 369 ]

 

The upper course of the Soane being in some places confined, and exposed to furious gusts from the gullies of the Kymore hills, and at others expanding into a broad and flat valley, presents many fluctuations of temperature. The mean temperature is much above that of the lower parts of the same valley (below Tura), the excess amounting to 5.4°. The nights and mornings are cooler, by 1·2°, the days hotter by 10°. There were also 10° increase of range during the thirteen days spent there; and the mean range from day to day was nearly as great as it was on the hills of Bengal.

There being much exposed rock, and the valley being swept by violent dust-storms, the atmosphere is drier, the mean saturation point being ·454, whereas in the lower part of the Soane's course it was ·516.

A remarkable uniformity prevails in the depression of thermometers exposed to nocturnal radiation, whether laid on the earth, grass, or freely exposed; both the mean and maximum indication coincide very nearly with those of the lower Soane valley and of the hills. The temperature of tufts of green barley laid on the ground is one degree higher than that of short grass; Argemone and Calotropis leaves maintain a still warmer temperature; from the previous experiments the Argemone appeared to be considerably the cooler, which I was inclined to attribute to the smoother and more shining surface of its leaf, but from these there would seem to be no sensible difference between the radiating powers of the two plants.




 

[ 370 ]

 

IV.—TABLE-LAND OF KYMORE HILLS
(Mean elev. 979 feet)
  February 20th to March 3rd
Hour Sunrise 9 a.m. 3 p.m. 9 p.m.
TEMPERATURE
    Mean
    Max.
    Min.
    Range
65·3
69·0
57·5
11·5
81·6
83·5
79·5
  4·0
88·1
90·0
84·5
  5·5
71·1
76·0
68·0
  8·0
WET-BULB
    Mean
    Max. Depression
    Min. Depression
57·7
  8·0
  6·0
65·3
19·0
14·0
63·3
26·5
21·5
60·3
13·0
  8·3
Elasticity of Vapour 0·428 0·468 0·324 0·433
DEW-POINT
    Mean
    Max.
    Min.
    Max. Depression
    Min. Depression
52·0
55·5
45·9
14·1
11·6
54·5
57·9
49·0
33·0
12·9
43·7
47·8
37·9
46·6
42·2
52·3
56·7
46·8
21·9
13·8
Weight of Vapour in cubic feet 4·710 5·000 3·417 4·707
SATURATION
    Mean
    Max.
    Min.
·647
·741
·648
·421
·479
·344
·240
·295
·214
·542
·643
·491
Number of observations 4 3 3 4

 
Extreme variation of temperature 32·5°
Extreme variation of relative humidity ·527 
Extreme diff. solar and nocturnal radiation    110·5°



 

[ 371 ]

 

NOCTURNAL RADIATION
SUNRISE
  Exposed
thermometer
On earth On grass
Temperature
Mean diff. from air
Max. diff. from air
Number of observations
59·5  
3·5
3·5
2
56·0  
1·5
1·5
1
54·7  
8·2
8·5
2
NINE P.M.
  Exposed
thermometer
On earth On grass
Temperature
Mean diff. from air
Max. diff. from air
Number of observations
71·5  
3·3
7·0
3
62·5  
5·5
5·5
1
61·0
  8·2
11·0
2

 

The rapid drying of the lower strata of the atmosphere during the day, as indicated by the great decrease in the tension of the vapour from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m., is the effect of the great violence of the north-west winds.

From the few days' observations taken on the Kymore hills, the temperature of their flat tops appeared 5° higher than that of the Soane valley, which is 500 feet below their mean level. I can account for this anomaly only on the supposition that the thick bed of alluvium, freely exposed to the sun (not clothed with jungle), absorbs the sun's rays and parts with its heat slowly. This is indicated by the increase of temperature being due to the night and morning observations, which are 3·1° and 8·5° higher here than below, whilst the 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. temperatures are half a degree lower.

The variations of temperature too are all much less in amount, as are those of the state of the atmosphere as to moisture, though the climate is rather damper.

On the subject of terrestrial radiation the paucity of the observations precludes my dwelling. Between 9 p.m. and sunrise the following morning I found the earth to have lost but 6·5° of heat, whereas a mean of nine observations at the same hours in the valley below indicated a loss of 12°.

Though the mean temperature deduced from the few days I spent on this part of the Kymore is so much above that of the upper Soane valley, which it bounds, I do not suppose that the whole hilly range


 

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partakes of this increase. When the alluvium does not cover the rock, as at Rotas and many other places, especially along the southern and eastern ridges of the ghats, the nights are considerably cooler than on the banks of the Soane; and at Rotas itself, which rises almost perpendicularly from the river, and is exposed to no such radiation of heat from a heated soil as Shahgunj is, I found the temperature considerably below that of Akbarpore on the Soane, which however is much sheltered by an amphitheatre of rocks.


 
V.—Mirzapore on the Ganges.

During the few days spent at Mirzapore, I was surprised to find the temperature of the day cooler by nearly 4° than that of the hills above, or of the upper part of the Soane valley, while the nights on the other hand were decidedly warmer. The dew-point was even lower in proportion, 7·6°, and the climate consequently drier. The following is an abstract of the observations taken at Mr. Hamilton's house on the banks of the Ganges (p. 363).

It is remarkable that nocturnal radiation as registered at sunrise is much more powerful at Mirzapore than on the more exposed Kymore plateau; the depression of the thermometer freely exposed being 3° greater, that laid on bare earth 6°, and that on the grass 1·4° greater, on the banks of the Ganges.

During my passage down the Ganges the rise of the dew-point was very steady, the maximum occurring at the lowest point on the river, Bhaugulpore, which, as compared with Mirzapore, showed an increase of 8° in temperature, and of 30·6° in the rise of the dew-point. The saturation-point at Mirzakore was ·331, and at the corresponding hours at Bhaugulpore ·742.


 

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MIRZAPORE (Mean elev. 362 feet)
  March 9th to 13th, 1848
Hour Sunrise 9 a.m. 3 p.m. 9 p.m.
TEMPERATURE
    Mean
    Max.
    Min.
    Range
61·1
63·0
58·0
  5·0
76·1
83·0
71·0
12·0
86·0
--
--
--
76·0
--
--
--
WET-BULB
    Mean
    Max. Depression
    Min. Depression
48·8
51·5
47·0
58·5
56·5
51·7
61·7
24·3
--
63·5
12·5
--
Elasticity of Vapour ·236 ·302 ·295 ·480
DEW-POINT
    Mean
    Max.
    Min.
    Max. Depression
    Min. Depression
34·3
39·7
29·7
32·8
23·8
41·9
--
--
52·3
15·7
41·3
--
--
44·7
--
55·2
--
--
20·8
--
Weight of Vapour in cubic feet 2·574 3·271 3·089 5·127
SATURATION
    Mean
    Max.
    Min.
·405
·450
·327
·324
·603
·176
·264
--
--
·511
--
--
Number of observations 3 3 1 1

 
Air in
shade
Sunrise
Exposed
Therm.
Diff. Exposed
on earth
Diff. Exposed
on grass
Diff.
60·0
62·5
63·0
58·0
55·0
54·5
55·5
53·0
5·0
8·0
7·5
5·0
--
56·0
50·5
54·0
--
6·5
12·5  
4·0
52·0
52·5
50·5
50·0
8·0
10·0  
12·5  
8·0
60·9 54·6 6·4 53·5 7·7 51·3 9·6

 

Next Appendix B